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Wildlife Conservation Initiatives by Indian Government

Wildlife Conservation Initiatives by Indian Government


Project Elephant

  • Elephant is considered as India’s cultural heritage animal. Project Elephant was launched in 1992.
  • It is also a centrally-sponsored programme, i.e., the centre provides financial and technical assistance to states for conservation of elephants.
  • Project Elephant was launched in 13 states. Under Project Elephant, elephant reserves have been created.
  • Elephant corridors have also been developed to facilitate the safe movement of elephants between two fragmented habitats.
  • An elephant corridor is defined as a stretch of forest land that connects habitats containing elephant population.
  • Elephant corridors have been specifically developed over railway lines to provide safe transfer of elephants and prevent rail accidents of elephants.
  • ‘Hathi Mere Saathi’ was a campaign launched by the MoEFCC with the Wildlife Trust of India for conservation of elephants.
  • The Wildlife Trust of India is an NGO engaged in the conservation of wildlife.


  • Launched in 2005, Indian Rhino Vision 2020 is an ambitious effort to attain a wild population of at least 3,000 one-horned rhinos, spread over seven protected areas in the Indian state of Assam by the year 2020.                          Wildlife Conservation Initiatives by Indian Government
  • Kaziranga National Park in Assam, India, holds about 70% of the world population of rhinos.
  • This is worrisome for two reasons: The park may have reached its carrying capacity and might not be able to support any more rhinos; and the entire species’ population can decimate because of a disease outbreak, natural disaster, or any other acute threat.


  • The Government of India has launched an initiative for the conservation of snow leopards. The total population of snow leopard is about 7500.
  • India has 10% of it. It is found in the Himalayan states at an altitude of 3000 m and above. It is the state animal of Himachal Pradesh.


  • The Sea Turtle Project was launched in 1999 with an objective of conserving Olive ridley turtles and other varieties of sea turtles which are endangered.
  • A significant proportion of Olive ridley turtles migrate every year during winters for laying eggs in the coastal regions.
  • The largest proportion of this population arrives in Bhitarkanika and Gahirmatha, Odisha.


  • The Indian Crocodile Conservation Project is considered to be the most successful initiatives in the world.
  • It has pulled back the once threatened crocodiles from the brink of extinction and placed them on a good path of recovery.
  • The Project has not just produced a large number of crocodiles, but has also contributed towards the conservation in a number of related fields as well.


  • Project Hangul was launched by Jammu and Kashmir to protect the population of hangul. Hangul/ Kashmir stag is the state animal of Jammu and Kashmir.
  • It is a subspecies of red deer found in the Central Asia. Hangul lives in a group of 12 to 18 in dense forests, high valleys of Jammu and Kashmir and parts of Himachal Pradesh.
  • In Kashmir, hangul is found in large numbers in Dachigam National Park.                      Wildlife Conservation Initiatives by Indian Government


  • It is a freshwater dolphin. Freshwater dolphins are rare, while saltwater ones are in large numbers. It is found in Ganga and Brahmaputra.
  • Its present population is nearly 2000. It is the national aquatic animal of India. It is also known as dolphin Susu, or Shushuk.
  • It is under threat due to the following factors:
  • River water pollution.
  • Siltation in river.
  • Entanglement in fishing nets.
  • Reduction in river flow due to construction of dams.
  • Poaching for its oil.


Environment & Biodiversity

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