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  • Like its flora, India is also rich in its fauna.  It has approximately 90,000 of animal species.
  • The country has about 2,000 species of birds.
  • They constitute 13% of the world’s total. There are 2,546 species of fish, which account for nearly 12% of the world’s stock. 
  • It also shares between 5 and 8 per cent of the world’s amphibians, reptiles and mammals.
  • The elephants are the most majestic animals among the mammals. They are found in the hot wet forests of Assam, Karnataka and Kerala.                      WILD LIFE OF INDIA
  • One-horned rhinoceroses are the other animals, which live in swampy and marshy lands of Assam and West Bengal. Arid areas of the Rann of Kachchh and the Thar Desert are the habitat for wild ass and camels respectively.
  • Indian bison, nilgai (blue bull), chousingha (four horned antelope), gazelle and different species of deer are some other animals found in India.
  • It also has several species of monkeys. India is the only country in the world that has both tigers and lions.
  • The natural habitat of the Indian lion is the Gir forest in Gujarat,.          WILD LIFE OF INDIA
  • Tigers are found in the forests of Madhya Pradesh, the Sundarbans of West Bengal and the Himalayan region.
  • Leopards too are members of the cat family They are important among animals of prey.
  • The Himalayas harbour a hardy range of animals, which survive in extreme cold.
  • Ladakh’s freezing high altitudes are a home to yak, the shaggy horned wildox weighing around one tonne, the Tibetan antelope, the bharal (blue sheep), wild sheep, and the kiang (Tibetan wild ass).
  • Furthermore, the ibex, bear, snow-leopard and very rare red panda are found in certain pockets.
  • In the rivers, lakes and coastal areas, turtles, crocodiles and gharials are found.  The latter is the only representative of a variety of crocodile, found in the world today.  Bird life in India is colorful. 
  • Peacocks, pheasants, ducks, parakeets, cranes and pigeons are some of the birds inhabiting the forests and wetlands of the country.
  • Due to excessive exploitation of the plants and animal resources by human beings, the ecosystem has been disturbed. About 1,300 plant species are endangered and 20 species are extinct.
  • Quite a few animal species are also endangered and some have become extinct.
  • The main causes for this major threat to nature are hunting by greedy hunters for commercial purposes.
  • Pollution due to chemical and industrial waste, acid deposits, introduction of alien species and reckless cutting of the forests to bring land under cultivation and inhabitation, are also responsible for the imbalance.

To protect the flora and fauna of the country, the government has taken many step:

  • Fourteen biosphere reserves have been set up in the country to protect flora and fauana.
  • Four out of these, the Sunderbans in the West Bengal, Nanda Devi in Uttarakhand, the Gulf of Mannar in Tamil Nadu and the Nilgiris (Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu) have been included in the world network of Biosphese reserves. 
  • Financial and technical assistance is provided to many Botanical Gardens by the government since 1992.
  • Project Tiger, Project Rhino, Project Great Indian Bustard and many other eco developmental projects have been introduced.          WILD LIFE OF INDIA
  • 89 National Parks, 490 Wildlife sanctuaries and Zoological gardens are set up to take care of Natural heritage.
  • All of us must realise the importance of the natural ecosystem for our own survival.
  • It is possible if indiscriminate destruction of natural environment is put to an immediate end.



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