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WHY CRIPPS MISSION FAILED IN 1942 ?

WHY CRIPPS MISSION FAILED IN 1942 ?

  • The Cripps Mission proposals failed to satisfy Indian nationalists and turned out to be made for US and Chinese consumption.
  • Various parties and groups had objections to the proposals on different points.

These were

OBJECTIONS OF CONGRESS

  1. The offer of dominion status instead of a provision for complete independence disappointed the congress leaders.
  2. Representation of the states by nominees and not by elected representatives.
  3. Right to provinces to secede as this went against the principle of national unity.
  4. Absence of any plan for immediate transfer of power and absence of any real share in defence; the governor- general’s supremacy had been retained, and the demand for Governor-General being only the constitutional head had not been accepted.                                          WHY CRIPPS MISSION FAILED IN 1942 ?
  5. Nehru and Maulana Azad were the official negotiators for the Congress.

OBJECTIONS OF THE MUSLIM LEAGUE

  1. Criticised the idea of a single Indian Union.
  2. It did not like the machinery for the creation of a constituent assembly and the procedure to decide on the accession of provinces to the Union.
  3. Thought that the proposals denied to the Muslims the right to self-determination and the creation of Pakistan.

Other groups also objected to the provinces’ right to secede. The Liberals considered the secession proposals to be against the unity and security of India.

The Hindu Mahasabha criticised the basis of the right to secede. The depressed classes thought that partition would leave them at the mercy of the caste Hindus.

The Sikhs objected that partition would take away Punjab from them.                            WHY CRIPPS MISSION FAILED IN 1942 ?

AN EVALUATION

  1. The explanation that the proposals were meant not to supersede the August Offer but to clothe general provisions with precision put British intentions in doubt.
  2. The incapacity of Cripps to go beyond the Draft Declaration and the adoption of a rigid take it or leave it attitude added to the deadlock. Cripps had earlier talked of cabinet and national government but later he said that he had only meant an expansion of the executive council.
  3. The procedure of accession was not well-defined. The decision on secession was to be taken by a resolution in the legislature by a 60% majority. If less than 60% of members supported it, the decision was to be taken by a plebiscite of adult males of that province by a simple majority. This scheme weighed against the Hindus in Punjab and Bengal if they wanted accession to the Indian Union.                                                          WHY CRIPPS MISSION FAILED IN 1942 ?
  4. It was not clear as to who would implement and interpret the treaty effecting the transfer of power.
  5. Churchill (the British prime minister), Amery (the secretary of state), Linlithgow (the viceroy) and Ward (the commander-in-chief) consistently torpedoed Cripps’ efforts.

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Modern History

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