WHAT IS CARBON SEQUESTRATION ?
- Carbon sequestration is also known as carbon capture and storage (CCS).
- It refers to the technique of capturing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and keeping it stored over a long period of time.
- In other words, carbon sequestration describes long-term storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) or other forms of carbon to counter global warming.
- The process shows tremendous promise for reducing the human “carbon footprint.” There are two main types of carbon sequestration: biological and geological.
- It is associated with the capture of its compounds from the environment, which reduces the progress of the greenhouse effect.
Techniques of Carbon Sequestration
There are three main techniques for carbon sequestration. These are as follows:
- It refers to the storage of carbon in the oceans.
- It is the process of storing carbon dioxide in underground geologic formations, or rocks.
- It refers to the storage of carbon inside the earth. It is further of three types.
- Hydrodynamic trapping:
- It refers to the addition of CO2 into water and then pumping of CO2 saturated water into the successive layers of rocks.
- Solubility trapping:
- CO2 can be stored by dissolving it in water or some other liquid.
- Mineral carbonation:
- CO2 can be used to form mineral carbonates such as limestone (CaCO3).
- Carbon can also be captured at the surface of the earth. For example, large amount of carbon is stored in soil and vegetation.
- Increase in carbon absorption through photosynthesis or reduction in the decomposition of organic matter can reduce carbon in the atmosphere.
- Decomposition of organic matter increases carbon emissions in two ways:
(1) The bacteria engaged in the decomposition consume oxygen in its activities.
(2) Decomposition of organic matter produces free carbon, which is stored in organic matter, is released into the atmosphere.