CONTACT US

084594-00000

About Us  :  Online Enquiry

Download

WETLAND ECOSYSTEM AND ITS IMPORTANCE

WETLAND ECOSYSTEM AND ITS IMPORTANCE

WETLAND ECOSYSTEM

  • Wetlands are areas, intermediate or transitional, between water bodies and terrestrial habitats.
  • Wetlands include lake littoral (marginal areas between the highest and lowest level of lakes), floodplains and other marshy or swampy areas, where water gets stagnated.
  • Stagnation of water may be due to poor drainage, impervious soil or due to man-made factors such as accumulation of water in rice fields.

Importance of Wetlands

Wetlands have ecological, scientific, economic and aesthetic significance.

  • Wetlands have ecological importance, because wetlands are habitat to various species of flora and fauna.
  • Wetlands have scientific importance, because research on biodiversity can be undertaken in these regions.
  • Wetlands have economic importance, because tourism and other revenue-generating recreational activities can be undertaken in these regions.
  • Wetlands have aesthetic importance, because rich flora and fauna add beauty to these regions.

Functions of wetlands are as follows:

  • Wetlands trap nutrients and sediments from running water.                  WETLAND ECOSYSTEM AND ITS IMPORTANCE
  • As wetlands trap nutrients and sediments, they help in water purification.
  • Wetlands are transitional areas between terrestrial and water bodies. Thus, these bodies reduce impact of flood on terrestrial areas.
  • Wetlands even facilitate maintenance of stream flow in some areas by contributing water to dry streams.
  • As wetlands are marshy regions, they assist in recharge of underground water.
  • Wetlands minimise the impact of river on land and thus reduce soil erosion.                  WETLAND ECOSYSTEM AND ITS IMPORTANCE
  • Wetlands act as an obstruction to running water and thus reduce the flow of running water.

Wetlands of India

  • Wetlands are not only important from the perspective of environment, but these regions support millions of people directly and indirectly by providing food, water, source of livelihood, etc.
  • India has nearly 27,500 wetlands. These wetlands cover 18.4% of the total area of India. Out of these wetlands, 70% are under paddy cultivation.

National Wetlands Conservation Programme (NWCP)

  • The NWCP was launched in the year 1985-86 for the conservation of wetlands. Under this programme, 115 wetlands (as on 31.12.2016) have been identified.
  • The central government is responsible for financial and technical assistance to state governments, whereas state governments are responsible for the actual protection of wetlands.

Threats

  • Wetlands face various threats due to reduction in the underground water, construction, sand mining, etc.                  WETLAND ECOSYSTEM AND ITS IMPORTANCE

ALSO READ : https://www.brainyias.com/shift-in-earths-axis-due-to-climate-change/

Environment & Biodiversity

Send this to a friend