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WATER RESOURCES OF INDIA AND THE WORLD

WATER RESOURCES OF INDIA AND THE WORLD

Water Resources of India

  • There are only two sources of freshwater in India—rainfall and melting of glaciers.
  • Total water available every year is around 4,000 cubic kilometres (km3).
  • From the total water available, about 25% is lost due to evaporation, transpiration or runoff.
  • Of the remaining 3,000 km3, around 1,100 km3 is utilised.                        WATER RESOURCES OF INDIA AND THE WORLD

Water Stress in India

  • The source of water remains nearly unchanged year-after-year. But with the economic development and population growth, the uses of water are expanding at nearly 2.5%-3.0% every year.
  • In 2006, India had an excess supply of water to the tune of 25% (i.e. there was nearly 25% more water available compared to what was being used—about 825 km3 in 2006).
  • India is expected to overshoot the supply of water shortly to become a water-deficient country.                  WATER RESOURCES OF INDIA AND THE WORLD
  • But besides agriculture, pollution of our rivers (through discharge of sewage and industrial effluents), deforestation, poor infrastructure for conserving water, excessive wastage of water, increased growth of high water use crops, and other factors as well lead to exacerbation of the water stress condition in India.      WATER RESOURCES OF INDIA AND THE WORLD
PER CAPITA WATER AVAILABILITY IN INDIA
Year

 

Population              (Million) Per Capita Water Availability M3/Year
1951  361 5177
1955  395 4732
1991 846 2209
2001 1027 1820
2025 1394 1341
2050 1640 1140

 Source: Government of India, Ministry of Water Resources (2009)

  • Water security is the reliable availability of an acceptable quantity and quality of water for health, livelihoods and production.
  • Water stress occurs when the demand for water exceeds the available amount during a certain period or when poor quality restricts its use.

WATER RESOURCES OF THE WORLD 

  • The distribution of water on the Earth’s surface is extremely uneven. Only 3% of water on the surface is fresh; the remaining 97% resides in the oceans.
  • Regarding freshwater distribution, 69% resides in glaciers, 30% underground, and less than 1% is present in lakes, rivers and swamps.
  • In other way, only 1% of the freshwater on the Earth’s surface is usable by humans, and 99% of the usable quantity is not accessible.            WATER RESOURCES OF INDIA AND THE WORLD

How Is Freshwater Different from Saline Water?

  • Saline water is the water that contains a certain amount of salt. Freshwater is the water with a dissolved salt concentration of less than one percent.
  • Thus, salinity, or the density of salt is much higher in saline water, though freshwater is not completely devoid of salt.
  • The brackish water is a mixture of salt and freshwater.                      WATER RESOURCES OF INDIA AND THE WORLD

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Environment & Biodiversity

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