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Vijaynagar Empire – Political Dynasties (1336-1565)

Vijaynagar Empire – Political Dynasties (1336-1565)

Sangama Dynasty:

  • Harihara and Bukka, two of the sons of Sangama founded the Vijayanagar empire in 1336, thus setting into motion the Sangama dynasty. Harihara I ruled upto 1356, then Bukka I succeeded him and ruled upto 1377.
  • Then, Harihara II became the ruler and assumed the title ‘Maharajadhiraja’ and ruled till 1404. After a brief interval, Devraya I (1406 -22) became the ruler, he was defeated by the contemporary Bahmani ruler Feroz Shah. Devraya II (1422-46) was the next important ruler and he began strengthening the army by enlisting Turkish archers in his army.    Vijaynagar Empire – Political Dynasties (1336-1565)
  • Devraya II came in conflict with the contemporary Bahmani ruler Ahmed Shah. After Devraya II, there was rapid decline in Sangama dynasty. The last ruler of Sangama dynasty Virupakasha II was overthrown by Saluva Narsimha in 1485.

Saluva Dynasty:

  • Saluva Narsimha who was the governor of Chandragiri overthrew Virupaksha II of Sangama dynasty to set up Saluva dynasty.
  • After Saluva Narsimha’s death, his minor son was enthroned under Narsa Naik who acted as his patron, and Narsa Naik was a virtual ruler.
  • After Narsa Naik’s death, his son Vir Narasimha overthrew the last Saluva dynasty ruler in 1505 to set up the Tuluva dynasty.    Vijaynagar Empire – Political Dynasties (1336-1565)

Tuluva Dynasty:

  • Vir Narasimha ruled from 1505-09 and after him, Krishna Deva Raya became the ruler in 1509 and ruled upto 1530. He is considered to be the greatest ruler of the Vijayanagar Kingdom.
  • He defeated the rebellious chief of Ummattur, Gangaraya. He defeated the Gajapati king of Prataparudra of Orissa, acquired Udayagiri, Kondapalli and Kondavidu from him, married Prataparudra’s daughter Annapurnadevi and acquired the title of ‘Gajapati Saptangaharana’.
  • Krishadevaraya defeated Yusuf Adil Shah of Bijapur in the battle of Diwani and conquered the Raichur doab.
  • He successfully invaded Gulbarga and Bidar and restored the Puppet Bahmani Sultan and assumed the title of ‘Yavanarajya Stapanacharya’. Krishnadeva Raya gave permission to the Portuguese to erect a fort at Bhatkal.
  • He abolished marriage tax but he imposed a tax on widow remarriage. In his times, a land survey was also conducted. After Krishnadevaraya, there was a period of confusion, following which Achyuta Rai ascended the throne and ruled upto 1542.
  • Sadasiva Raya followed Achyuta Ray and ruled upto 1570. Rama Raya was the Prime Minister under Sadasiva Raya, he interfered in the affairs of the five Deccan states, whereupon, four of them united and together the armies of Bijapur, Bidar, Golconda and Ahmednagar defeated the army of the Vijaynagar empire in the decisive battle of Talikota (Battle of Rakshasa Tangdi) in 1565 where Rama Raya was beheaded by Hussain Nizam Shah of Ahmednagar and the city of Hampi was ransacked.
  • Berar did not form part of the alliance against Vijayanagar.

Aravidu Dynasty:

  • Was founded by Tirumala Raya in 1570 after the city of Hampi was ransacked. The weak successors ruled from Penukonda.    Vijaynagar Empire – Political Dynasties (1336-1565)
  • Though the glorious phase was over, the kingdom limped on. In the times of Venkata II in 1612, he permitted the feudatory rulers of Mysore, the Wodeyars to assume the title of Rajas of Mysore.

ALSO READ: https://www.brainyias.com/satavahana-dynasty/

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