TYPES OF ORGANISED CRIME
TYPES OF ORGANISED CRIME
Drug Abuse and Drug Trafficking
- It is perhaps the most serious organised crime affecting the country and is truly transnational in character. India is geographically situated between the countries of Golden Triangle and Golden Crescent and is a transit point for narcotic drugs produced in these regions to the West.
- India also produces a considerable amount of licit opium, part of which also finds place in the illicit market in different forms.
- Illicit drug trade in India centres around five major substances, namely, heroin, hashish, opium, cannabis and methaqualone. Seizures of cocaine, amphetamine, and LSD are not unknown but are insignificant and rare.
- Smuggling, which consists of clandestine operations leading to unrecorded trade, is another major economic offence. The volume of smuggling depends on the nature of fiscal policies pursued by the Government.
- The nature of smuggled items and the quantum thereof is also determined by the prevailing fiscal policies. India has a vast coast line of about 7,500 kms and open borders with Nepal and Bhutan and is prone to large scale smuggling of contraband and other consumable items.
- Though it is not possible to quantify the value of contraband goods smuggled into this country, it is possible to have some idea of the extent of smuggling from the value of contraband seized, even though they may constitute a very small proportion of the actual smuggling.
Money Laundering & Hawala
- Money laundering means conversion of illegal and ill-gotten money into seemingly legal money so that it can be integrated into the legitimate economy. Proceeds of drug related crimes are an important source of money laundering world over.
- Besides, tax evasion and violation of exchange regulations play an important role in merging this ill-gotten money with tax evaded income so as to obscure its origin.
- This aim is generally achieved via the intricate steps of placement, layering and integration so that the money so integrated in the legitimate economy can be freely used by the offenders without any fear of detection.
- Money laundering poses a serious threat world over, not only to the criminal justice systems of the countries but also to their sovereignty.
Terrorism & Narco-Terrorism
- Terrorism is a serious problem which India is facing. Conceptually, terrorism does not fall in the category of organised crime, as the dominant motive behind terrorism is political and/or ideological and not the acquisition of money-power.
- The Indian experience, however, shows that the criminals are perpetrating all kinds of crimes, such as killings, rapes, kidnappings, gun-running and drug trafficking, under the umbrella of terrorist organisations. TYPES OF ORGANISED CRIME
- The offence of murder is punishable under section 302 IPC by life imprisonment or death sentence. Conviction rate in murder cases is about 38%.
- The chance of detection in contract killings is quite low. The method adopted in contract killings is by engaging a professional gang for a monetary consideration.
Kidnapping for Ransom
- Kidnapping for ransom is a highly organised crime in urban conglomerates.
- There are several local as well as inter-state gangs involved in it as the financial rewards are immense vis-a-vis the labour and risk involved.
- A large number of Indians are working abroad, particularly in the Gulf region. Young people want to move to foreign countries for lucrative jobs.
- Large scale migration is fostered by the high rate of unemployment in the country and higher wage levels in foreign lands.
- As it is not easy for the aspirants to obtain valid travel documents and jobs abroad, they fall into the trap of unscrupulous travel agents and employment agencies.
- Trading in sex and girl-running is a very profitable business in which the underworld plays an important part. Flesh trade has been flourishing in India in various places and in different forms. The underworld is closely connected with brothels and call girl rackets, making plenty of money through this activity.
- They supply young girls to brothels in different parts of the country, shuttling them to and from the city to minimise the risk of their being rescued.
- According to a study conducted by the Indian Health Organisation, there are over 1,000,000 prostitutes in Bombay and an equal number in Calcutta. Delhi and Pune have an estimated 40,000 each. TYPES OF ORGANISED CRIME