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TRANSGENIC ORGANISMS

TRANSGENIC ORGANISMS

  • These are organisms in to the DNA of which a desirable gene from another species has been inserted by recombinant DNA technology.
  • Thus, these organisms have the ability to produce special protein molecules of choice.
  • The aim of scientists is to transfer desirable characteristics from one organism to another, for example, to make a crop resistant to an herbicide or to enhance food value.

ADVANTAGES

  1. Transgenic animals like cows and sheep can be used to produce specific human proteins in their blood or milk.
  2. Transgenic bacteria with human genes have been produced that are used to manufacture useful pharmaceuticals such as human insulin, human growth hormone. The hormones produced by transgenic bacteria are much purer, safer and cheaper than earlier ones obtained from animal sources.
  3. Transgenic plants carrying genes for pesticides such as,
  • Cotton, are resistant to pests and need application of very little chemical pesticide thus saving the environment from pollution and also 30% higher yield compared to ordinary cotton.
  • Transgenic rice containing gene for beta-carotene (Golden rice) have been developed that helps in reducing the incidence of vitamin A deficiency.
  • Transgenic potato containing gene for protein from Amaranthus grain have been developed that can improve the nutritional status of population, who are vegetarian.

At the same time, despite strict laws regulating release of transgenic organisms in to the environment, doubts have been raised as to the long-term impact of these organisms on human health & environment.

There is apprehension that indiscriminate release of transgenic organisms may have adverse effect on indigenous varieties of crop in the long term, reducing their genetic diversity.

RELATED TERMS: [TRANSGENIC ORGANISMS]

Transgenic Animals

  • Animals that have had their DNA manipulated to possess and express an extra gene are known as transgenic animals.

Transgenic Plant:

  • Genetically engineered plant or offspring of genetically engineered plants.
  • Transgenic plants result from the insertion of genetic material from another organism so that the plant will exhibit a desired trait. TRANSGENIC ORGANISMS
  • Recombinant DNA techniques are usually used.

Hybrid Plant: [TRANSGENIC ORGANISMS]

  • It is the offspring of two parents that differ in one or more inheritable characteristics, especially the offspring of two different varieties of the same species or the offspring of two parents belonging to different species.
  • They show qualities of two or more different types of plants combined by hybridization. It may be generally by cross pollination.
  • For example, if you genetically alter plant A and plant B so that their genes mix together, you would create seeds in the fruit of the plants which will create plant C.
  • These plants help to increase food production and are drought resistible, immune from pest-insects and various diseases.
  • They can tolerate high temperature, rain, humidity and other adverse weather conditions. On the other hand, Transgenic Plants are genetic engineered plants or off spring of them.
  • They usually contain material from at least one unrelated organism as from virus animal, or other plant.
  • They are produced to include better qualities of such other organism. Combination of qualities of different organism is seen in the transgenic plants. TRANSGENIC ORGANISMS

 

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SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

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