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The Tughluq Dynasty (1320 – 1414)

The Tughluq Dynasty (1320 – 1414)

Ghiyasuddin Tughluq (1320 – 25):

  • He ascended the throne at Delhi in 1320. He was a competent and able ruler. He maintained the discipline of his army. He was the first Sultan to make a plan for the construction of canals.
  • He followed the rule that peasants should not be left lightly taxed and they should also not be heavily taxed. He insisted that the extra income of nobles from the iqtas other than the salary should be deposited with the government.
  • He was the first Sultan to frame regulations for famine relief. Under his reign, his son Jauna Khan (later Mohammed bin Tughluq) conquered the Kakatiya kingdom of Warangal, annexed it and renamed Warangal as Sultanpur.
  • When Ghiyasuddin Tughluq returned to Delhi after suppressing the revolt of the governor of Bengal at Lakhnauti, the palace of wood in which he was staying at Afghanpur collapsed under the march of elephants resulting in the death of the sultan.  The Tughluq Dynasty (1320 – 1414)
  • Ibn Batuta holds Mohammed bin Tughluq responsible for Ghiyasuddin Tughluq’s death at Afghanpur. Ghiyasuddin had a dispute with Sufi Saint Nizamuddin Auliya.

Mohammed-bin-Tughluq (1325-51):

  • Mohammed-bin-Tughluq was known as a wonder of the age in which he lived. He was a scholar in Arabic and Persian and a calligraphist.
  • He was a scholar in mathematics, astronomy, medicine, logic, philosophy and Islamic theology. He was an abstract thinker and an idealist and not a practical statesman.
  • He was partly motivated by his father and partly by Alauddin Khalji and partly by his highly individualistic attitude.
  •  Mohammed bin Tughluq raised a new order of nobility drawn from foreign muslims, converted muslims and also Hindus.  The Tughluq Dynasty (1320 – 1414)

Feroz Shah Tughluq (1351 – 88):

  • He was born to a Hindu Rajput lady and so suffered from an inferiority complex and therefore, in order to establish his credibility as the sovereign of an Islamic state and leader of the faithful, he publicly demonstrated his zeal for Islam and contempt for Hinduism.
  • He was equally intolerant of the shias and other muslim dissenters. He always attempted to win the support of the ulema and extended the influence of theologians in the state affairs.
  • He gave land grants to the ulema. He banned practices which the orthodox theologians considered unislamic such as the visit of muslim women to the graves of saints.
  • He persecuted a number of muslim sects considered heretical by the theologians. He showed immense respect for the Caliph and describes the recognition of the sultanate by the Caliph and describes the recognition of the sultanate by the Caliph as the greatest honour he ever had.
  • Feroz Shah Tughluq was not a good military general. He led two expeditions into Bengal both of which failed, thus Bengal was lost to the Sultanate. 

The Later Tughluqs (1388 -1414):

  • There were a string of rulers of the Tughluq dynasty who ruled from 1388 to 1414.
  • The important event that occurred during the reign of later Tughluqs was the sacking of Delhi in 1398 by Amir Timur, the central Asian ruler, which exposed the weakness of the Delhi Sultanate.
  • Amir Timur handed over Delhi to Khizr Khan before leaving India. The Tughluq Dynasty (1320 – 1414)

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