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The Preamble to the Indian Constitution | Polity

Preamble | The Preamble to the Indian Constitution 

WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens:

JUSTICE, social, economic and political;

LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;

EQUALITY of status and of opportunity;

and to promote among them all

FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation;



  • The Preamble to the Constitution of India is a brief introductory statement that sets out guidelines, which guide the people of the nation, and to present the principles of the Constitution, and to indicate the source from which the document derives its authority, and meaning.
  • The hopes and aspirations of the people are described in it.
  • The preamble can be referred to as the preface which highlights the entire Constitution.

Objective Resolution

  • In 1946, Objective Resolution was moved by Jawaharlal Nehru, describing constitutional structure. on 1947 (22nd January) it was adopted. It shaped the Constitution of India and its modified version is reflected in the Preamble of the Indian Constitution.

Basic Tenets Of The Objective Resolution | The Preamble to the Indian Constitution 

  • The people of India to play the source of power and authority of the sovereignty, and the independence
  • To draw a Constitution for India
  • Constituent Assembly’s resolve to see India as independent, sovereign and republic
  • To realize residual powers, autonomy on such states as the Constitution of India reflects
  • To make all territories of the pre-independent India into a united states of post-independent India
  • To realize union with the power which will be different than those given to such states
  • To provide adequate safeguards to the minorities, tribal and backward areas and other depressed and backward classes
  • To provide justice, social, economic and political equality of status of opportunity and, freedom of thought,
    expression, belief, faith, worship, vocation, association and action, subject to law and public
    morality before the law
  • To promote the peace and welfare among the worldly nations.
  • To maintain the integrity of the Indian republic’s territory and its territorial rights on land, sea, air according to the justice and law of the civilized nation

Main Ingredients of the Indian Preamble

  • Source of the Indian Constitution- The People of India are revealed to be the source of the authority of the Indian Constitution. The words, ‘We, the People of India’ reflect the same.
  • Nature of the Indian State- The Preamble of India tags India as the sovereign, secular, republic, secular and democratic nation
  • Objective of the Indian Constitution- Justice, Liberty, Equality and Fraternity are denoted as the objectives of the Preamble of India
  • Adoption Date of the Constitution of India- November 26, 1949  as the date when then the Indian Constitution

Nature Of Indian State | The Preamble to the Indian Constitution 

  • Sovereign: India is internally and externally sovereign – externally free from the control of any foreign power and internally, it has a free government which is directly elected by the people and makes laws that govern the people. No external power can dictate the government of India.
  • Socialist: “Socialism” as an economic philosophy where means of production and distribution are owned by the State. India adopted Mixed Economy, where apart from the state, there will be private production too. Socialism as a social philosophy stresses more on societal equality.
  • Secular: Features of secularism as envisaged in the Preamble is to mean that the state will have no religion of its own and all persons will be equally entitled to the freedom of conscience and the right freely to profess, practice and propagate the religion of their choice. (S R Bommai and Others v Union of India, AIR 1994 SC 1918)
  • Democratic: Indicates that the Constitution has established a form of Government which gets its authority from the will of the people. The rulers are elected by the people and are responsible to them.
  • Republic: As opposed to a monarchy, in which the head of state is appointed on the hereditary basis for a lifetime or until he abdicates from the throne, a democratic republic is an entity in which the head of state is elected, directly or indirectly, for a fixed tenure. The President of India is elected by an electoral college for a term of five years. The post of the President Of India is not hereditary. Every citizen of India is eligible to become the President of the country.

Some Interesting Facts Of Preamble

  • The preamble-page, along with other pages of the original Constitution of India, was designed and decorated solely by renowned painter Beohar Rammanohar Sinha of Jabalpur.
  • Supreme Court of India has, in the Kesavananda case, recognised that the preamble may be used to interpret ambiguous areas of the constitution where differing interpretations present themselves. (In the 1995 case of Union Government Vs LIC of India also the Supreme Court has once again held that Preamble is the integral part of the Constitution.
  • As originally enacted the preamble described the state as a “sovereign democratic republic”. In 1976 the Forty-second Amendment changed this by adding words socialist and secular to read “sovereign socialist secular democratic republic”.

Amendments | The Preamble to the Indian Constitution 

  • The original Preamble, adopted by the Constituent Assembly in 1949, declared India a “Sovereign Democratic Republic”.
  • By the 42nd Amendment of 1976, enacted during the Emergency, the words “Socialist” and “Secular” were inserted; the Preamble now reads “Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic”.


Indian Polity

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