The Later Mughals
The Later Mughals
With Aurangzeb death in 1707, there was a war of succession among his three sons, Muazzam, Azam and Kambaksh. Muazzam killed Azam in 1707. Muazzam later killed Kambaksh at Hyderabad.
Bahadur Shah 1 (1707-12):
- Prince Muazzam ascended the throne styled as Bahadur Shah I. He followed a liberal policy towards people of other religions.
- He took Guru Gobind Singh into Mughal service, however the Sikhs under Banda Bahadur later revolted.
- Bahadur Shah I released Shahu and there was a civil war between maratha contingents led by Shahu and Tarabai.
- Bahadur Shah I also adopted a liberal policy towards the Rajputs and the Jats. Zulfiqar Khan was his wazir.
Jahandar Shah (1712-13):
- He was the son of Bahadur Shah I. He ascended the throne with the help of Zulfiqar Khan who continued to be the wazir.
- Later, Jahandar Shah was defeated by his nephew Farukh Siyyar in 1713 with the help rendered by Sayyid brothers.
Farukh Siyyar (1713 — 19):
- Ascended the throne with the help rendered by the Sayyid brothers — Abdullah Khan who was appointed as the wazir and Hussain Ali Khan who was apoitned the Mir bakshi.
- The Sayyid brothers exercised the real power and Farukh Siyyar was a nominal ruler. The Jet leader Churaman revolted against the Mughals during his time.
- The ruler of Marwar, Ajit Singh of Jodhpur was defeated when he revolted. The revolt of the Sikhs under Banda Bahadur was suppressed and he was executed. Farukh Siyyar granted many firmans in favour of English East India Company in 1717. The Later Mughals
- The Sayyid brothers then killed Farukh Siyyar in 1719 and promoted Rafi-ud-darjat to the throne who ratified the treaty. He died soon and then Rafi-ud-daulah was promoted to the throne and he too died soon.
Mohammed Shah (1719-48):
- He was promoted to the throne by the Sayyid brothers. His original name was Roshan Akthar. He orgnised a group to kill the Sayyid brothers.
- The group consisted of Sadat Khan and Chinquilach Khan. They organised the murder of the Sayyid brothers. Sadat Khan became the wazir, but later founded the state of Oudh.
- Chinqilach Khan was conferred the title of Nizam-ul-mulk, he went on to found the autonomous state of Hyderabad in 1724.
- The Jat leader Churaman revolted against the Mughals, later under Badan Singh they founded a separate Jat state at Bharatpur. The Later Mughals
- Daud Khan established an independent state in Rohilkhand. In 1739 Nadir Shah invaded Delhi and carried away lots of wealth including the Kohinoor diamond and the peacock throne.
- Aliwardi Khan established an independent kingdom in Bengal. Muhammed promoted literature, arts, music and was nicknamed ‘Rangila’.
Ahmed Shah (1748-54):
- He was the son of Muhammed Shah. He was a weak ruler.
- His reign saw the first invasion of India by the afghan Ahmed Shah Abdali.
- Ahmed Shah’s wazir blinded him and placed Alamgir II on the throne.
Alamgir II (1754-59):
- He too was killed by his wazir.
Shah Alam II (1759 — 1806):
- He was the son of Alamgir II. His original name was Ali Gauhar. He did not live in his capital initially due to fear of his wazir. The third battle of Panipat in 1761 was fought in his reign.
- He was defeated by the English in the Battle of Buxar in 1764. In the treaty of Allahabad in 1765, he conferred the diwani of Bihar, Bengal and Orissa to the Company, in return he received a pension of Rs.26 lakhs from the British alongwith Kara and Allahabad.
- Later on he supported the Marathas because of which the British captured Delhi in 1803 and Shah Alam II died as a prisoner in 1806.
Akbar II (1806 — 37):
- He was the one who conferred the title of ‘Raja’ on Rama Mohan Roy and requested the latter to go to England to plead for a hike in the Emperors pension.
Bahadur Shah II (1837 – 62):
- He was the last Mughal emperor. He was deported to Rangoon in 1858 after the Revolt of 1857 was crushed.
- He died in Rangoon in 1862. The Later Mughals