The Khalji Dynasty (1290 – 1320)
The Khalji Dynasty (1290 – 1320)
Jalaluddin Khalji (1290 — 96):
- The rise of Jalaluddin Khalji is referred to as the ‘Khalji revolution’ as the Khaljis ended the monopoly over power held by the Turkish nobles.
- The Khaljis though, did not exclude the Turks from high offices. They also admitted the Indian muslims to the nobility. The Khalji Dynasty (1290 – 1320)
- Jalaluddin was the first ruler of the Delhi sultanate to clearly put forward the view that since the majority of the population was comprised of Hindus, any state in India could not be a truly Islamic state.
- He also tried to gain the goodwill of the nobility by a policy of tolerance and avoiding harsh punishments. So, he wanted to mitigate the harsher aspects of Balban’s rule.
- But many people considered it to be a weak policy at a time when Delhi Sultanate faced many internal and external foes.
- He gave refuge to Mongols who converted to Islam in Delhi in Mongolpura. Sidi Maulah, a sufi saint, though was put to death by Jalaluddin Khalji when he attempted a rebellion.
- Alauddin Khalji (Ali Gurshap Khan) was the nephew and son-in-law or Jalaluddin Khalji. He was governor of Kara near Allahabad. In 1292, Alauddin Khalji without consulting the Sultan raided Ujjain and Bhilsa and returned with war booty.
- The Sultan pardoned Alauddin and gave him additional charge of lqta of Awadh. This fuelled the ambitions of Alauddin and in 1296, again without seeking permission of the sultan, he raided Deogiri and plundered it and returned with immense wealth. The Khalji Dynasty (1290 – 1320)
- Alauddin Khalji then lured Jalaluddin Khalji to visit him at Kara and then, with a combination of use of gold and military might, subdued his opponents and proclaimed himself as Sultan of Delhi.
Alauddin Khalji (1296 – 1316):
- He consolidated his hold by giving harsh punishment to anyone who opposed him. He resorted to a wholesale massacre of the Mongols who had settled in Delhi during the time of Jalaluddin Khalji.
- He gave harsh punishments even to the wives and children of these rebels, a practice which according to Ziauddin Barani was a new one and was continued by his successors.
- Alauddin framed a series of regulations to prevent the nobles from conspiring against him. The nobles were forbidden to hold banquets or festivities, or to form marriage alliances without the permission of the Sultan.
- He also banned the use of wines and intoxicants and also instituted a spy service to inform the Sultan of all that the nobles said and did.
Qutubuddin Mubarak Khalji (1316 — 20):
- Malik Kafur who served as deputy Sultan under Alauddin Kahlji placed the minor, Umar Shahabuddin on the throne and himself became defacto ruler of Delhi.
- But Malik Kafur was later put to death and Qutubuddin Mubarak Kahlji ascended the throne at Delhi. He launched an expedition to Deogiri and annexed it to the Sultanate.
- However, his wazir Nasiruddin Khusrau killed him and became the Sultan. Mubarak Khalji, like Alauddin Khalji, never applied for investiture from the Caliph.
Nasiruddin Khusrau Shah (1320):
- He was the only converted Indian muslim to become the Sultan. So, the Turk nobles opposed him from the outset.
- In the confrontation that ensued, Khusrau was defeated and killed by Ghazi Malik who then ascended the throne at Delhi as Ghiyasuddin Tughluq, thus setting into motion the Tughluq Dynasty. The Khalji Dynasty (1290 – 1320)