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‘Fundamental’ means the Constitution has separately listed and made special provisions for the protection of ‘Fundamental Rights.’
Fundamental Rights are different from other rights (i.e. ordinary legal rights) available to the citizens of India. Ordinary legal rights are protected and enforced by ordinary law; but Fundamental Rights are protected and guaranteed by the Constitution of India. Ordinary Rights may be changed or amended by the legislature by ordinary law making process, but a Fundamental Right may only be changed by amending the Constitution itself. Judiciary has the powers and responsibility (assigned by the Constitution) to protect the Fundamental Rights; in case any government’s action violates it.
Judiciary, if found any act of the government (either by Executive or by Legislature) equivalent to violation of the Fundamental Rights, can be declared that act illegal or restrict them to do further so. However, Fundamental Rights have some reasonable restrictions and hence, they are not absolute in nature.
Furthermore, the preamble to our Constitution speaks of ensuring all its citizens equality, liberty, and justice. Fundamental Rights put this promise into effect.
Fundamental Rights are very essential to everyone’s life. They are the basic feature of the Constitution.
The Constitution of India provides six Fundamental Rights, which are mentioned in Articles 12 to 35 in Part-III (of Constitution).