The Delhi Sultanate: Slave Dynasty (1206-90)
The Delhi Sultanate: Slave Dynasty (1206-90)
Slave Dynasty (1206-90)
Qutubuddin Aibak (1206 – 10):
- Muhammed Ghori was succeeded by Qutubuddin Aibak, a slave. He ruled mostly from Lahore. Yalduz, another slave of Muhammed Ghori who succeeded Ghori in Ghazni claimed to rule over Delhi as well.
- This was contested by Aibak who did not want to be embroiled in central Asian politics and enabled the Delhi Sultanate to develop along independent lines.
- Aibak gave his daughter in marriage to Iltutmish. Aibak gave his sister in marriage to Nasiruddin Qubacha, a ruler of Sind, Multan. Once, while playing Chaugan (polo) Aibak fell from his horse and died.
Shamsuddin Iltutmish (1210-36):
- Aram Shah, the son of Aibak succeeded him. But soon he was overthrown and Iltutmish was enthroned as the Sultan. Iltutmish is considered to be the real consolidator of Turkish conquest in northern India.
- At the time of his accession, Ali Mardan Khan declared himself, the king of Bengal and Bihar. The Rajputs of Ajmer, Bayana, Gwalior and Kalinjar declared independence.
- Iltutmish defeated and killed Jajuddin Yalduz, the ruler of Ghazni in 1215-16. Iltutmish suppressed the Rajputs and conquered Ajmer and Ranthambor.
- He defeated the rulers of Vidisha and Ujjain and also invaded Gwalior and Bundelkhand. When the Mongols under Chengez Khan ousted the Khwarizm prince Jalaluddin Mangbarni, Iltutmish refused to shelter Jalaluddin Mangbarni and prevented Chengez Khan from crossing the Indus river in 1221 AD to invade India.
- Iltutmish then killed Nasiruddin Qubacha in 1226-27 AD. In 1226-27 his son launched an invasion and defeated a person called lwaz who had taken the title of Sultan Ghiyasuddin who proclaimed independence in Bengal and Bihar.
- But Iltutmish had to suffer defeat at the hands of Rana Kshetra Singh of Nagda and also against the Chalukyas of Gujarat. The Delhi Sultanate: Slave Dynasty (1206-90)
- Iltutmish borrowed court practices from Iran and organised his court system on those lines. He organised his nobility into Chalisa (group of 40 nobles).
- He also reorganized the Iqta System which were revenue assignments of big or small territories in favour of officers and also to orphans, widows, ulemas, mosques.
- Iltutmish also reformed the coins and currency and issued silver coins called ‘Tanka’ and copper coins called ‘Jital’. Iltutmish introduced a purely arabic currency of gold and silver.
Iltutmish acquired a certificate of legitimacy from the Caliph at Baghdad. Iltutmish belonged to Ilbarni Clan, so his dynasty is known as 1st Ilbari dynasty.
Ruknuddin Firoz Shah (1236):
- Though Iltutmish nominated his daughter Razia to succeed him, his son, Ruknuddin Firoz Shah succeeded him. He was unable to contain rebellions, so he was deposed and Razia succeeded him.
Razia Sultana (1236-40):
- it was a good administrator and is praised by contemporary historian Minbaj-us-Siraj in his book Tabaqat-i-Nasiri.
- She was a bold ruler who had to content against her brothers as well as powerful Turkish nobles. She discarded the veil and even hunted and led the army in war.
- She appointed an abyssinian slave Jamaluddin Yakut to the post of amir-i-akhur (master of the horse).
- Ibn Batutah insinuates that the illicit relationship between Razia and Jamaluddin Yakut was responsible for her downfall, but the real reason was the conspiracy of nobles led by her wazir Nizam-ul-mulk Junaidi and Malik Altunia, the governor of Bhatinda.
- Razia was unable to contain the rebellion and was deposed. She married Malik Altunia and tried to stage a comeback, but was killed. The Delhi Sultanate: Slave Dynasty (1206-90)
Bahram Shah (1240-42):
- Under him, the power of the nobles increased and a new post of Naib-i-mamaliqaut (deputy to the king) was created to satisfy the aspirations of the nobles. He was later deposed by the nobles.
Masud Shah (1242-46):
- He was a puppet in the hands of the nobles.
Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah (1246-66):
- He was a nominal ruler. The real power was in the hands of Ulugh Khan (later Balban) who gave his daughter in marriage to the Sultan and was appointed Naib-i-mamaliqaut.
- However, a Hindu convert, Imaduddin Raihan conspired against Balban and occupied his position. But later Balban formed a group of his own to depose Imaduddin Raihan and put him to death.
- Balban then re-occupied the position of naib-i-mamaliqaut and established peace and security. In 1259, Balban welcomed and honoured the ambassadors sent by Mongol leader Halaku.
- According to Fakhurddin Isami (a historian in Bahmani Kingdom) Balban poisoned Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah and occupied the throne in 1266.
Kaikubad (1286 — 90):
- The son of Bughra Khan, and the grandson of Balban, named Kaikubad was enthroned after Balban’s death in 1286 A.D. He ruled for three years and then his son Qaimurs was enthroned.
- He was killed by Jalaluddin Khalji who then went on to establish the Khalji dynasty. Before accession to the throne of Delhi Sultanate, Jalaluddin Khalji was the governor of Samana and helped in containing the Mongol threat.
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