THE CHOLA EMPIRE
THE CHOLA EMPIRE
- The decline of the Pallavas in the 9th century created a political vacuum which was filled by the Cholas.
Vijayalaya Chola (846 — 907 AD):
- He was a vassal of the Pallavas.
- He captured Tanjore from the Pandyas and made it the capital of the Cholas.
Aditya I (871 — 907 AD):
- Extended the work of Vijayalaya by occupying the territories from the Pallavas.
Parantaka Chola I (907 — 955 AD):
- He Was the first imperial Chola. He defeated the Pandyans and Shrilankans initially but was later defeated by the Rashtrakuta king Krishna III.
- This loss undermined the glory of the Cholas and they entered a dark phase of thirty years from 955 AD — 985 AD. THE CHOLA EMPIRE
Raja Raja Chola I (985 — 1014 AD):
- Orchestrated the resurgence of the Cholas. He defeated the Pandyans and the Cheras.
- In 993 AD when Cheras sought support from the Sri Lankan rulers, the Cholas captured the northern portion of Sri Lanka and the capital Anuradhapura was captured and they also raided another capital Polonnaruwa.
- Northern Sri Lanka was organised in the form of a province. Raja Raja Chola is also said to have captured the Laccadive Islands and Maldives Islands.
- He also captured a few territories in Mysore from the Gangas and from the Chalukyas of Kalyani, although he maintained friendly relations with Chalukyas of Vengi.
- Raja Raja I developed the naval strength of the Cholas
- He re-organised the administrative system
- In 1000 Ad he began the conduction of a land survey
- He adopted the practice of inscribing the historical inscriptions
- He began the practice of associating Yuvaraja or crown Prince with the administration
- Raja Raja I being a patron of Shaivism constructed the great Raja Rajeshwar temple (also called as the Brihadeeswarar temple) at Tanjore.
Rajendra I (1014-44 AD):
- He is considered as the greatest Chola ruler. He completed the conquest of Sri Lanka in 1017 AD and captured the whole of Sri Lanka and made it a part of Chola empire. THE CHOLA EMPIRE
- He suppressed the rebellions of a captured portion of the Krishna-Tungabhadra doab. He maintained friendly relations with Chalukyas of Vengi.
- He launched on expedition to Orissa and maintained matrimonial relations with the Ganga dynasty of Orissa. He then reached Bengal upto Ganga river in 1022 AD and defeated the Pala ruler of Bengal, Mahipala.
- Rajendra I then assumed the title of Gangaikonda and founded a capital by the name Gangaikondacholapuram on the mouths of the Kaveri river.
- Rajendra I also founded a temple and a water tank with the same name of Gangaikondacholapuram. His expedition to Bengal along the east coast was undertaken to establish Chola domination over the Bay of Bengal.
- He then captured the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and established such control over the Bay of Bengal that it was called the Chola lake.
- He had a well organized naval fleet with which he launched an expedition to South — East Asia to protect Indian trading interests there.
- He started the 100 years naval war with Sailendra rulers of Sumatra. He sent two embassies to China for promoting trade and commerce. THE CHOLA EMPIRE