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  • The British wanted to connect their territories of Bengal with that of Madras. In between lay northern Circars which was held by the French who got it as reward for installing Salabat Jung as the Nizam of Hyderabad .
  • However, the French were ousted with the British military support in 1758. But the Nizam did not give the territories to the British even after being offered a higher rent.
  • However, in August 1765, Clive got the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II (after the Mughal loss in Battle of Buxar) to issue a decree granting the Company rights to that territory.
  • When the British began occupying the northern Circars in March 1766, the Nizam objected, issuing threatening letters to Company authorities in Madras. He considered going to war against the Company, but his poor financial condition made this impossible.
  • Instead he negotiated a treaty with the Company in November 1766. As per this treaty, British would get the northern Circars in exchange for 7 lakh rupees or military support to the Nizam in his endeavours.
  • The Nizam was involved in an alliance with the Marathas (under Peshwa Madhavrao I) against Mysore as both feared the expansionist threat posed by Hyder Ali. Even the state of Carnatic was suspicious of Mysore.
  • The Nawab of Carnatic, Muhammad Ali Khan Wallajah, accused Mysore of giving refuge to his opponents (who were contenders to the throne of Carnatic state).
  • The Nawab of Carnatic thus allied to the British who were surrounded by his state. This led to war with Mysore.
  • The war against Mysore began in 1767 when the Marathas attacked in anticipation of Nizam’s offensive on Mysore. They invaded northern Mysore and withdrew after receiving a payment of Rs 30 lakh.
  • By the time Marathas withdrew, the Nizam attacked Mysore with the help of the English. However, when the English came to know that Hyder Ali and Nizam were negotiating peace, they withdrew their troops.                                                    THE ANGLO-MYSORE AND ANGLO-MARATHA WARS
  • Hyder Ali charged on the retreating English and dealt them a crushing defeat. Although, he was defeated by the Marathas, Hyder Ali still restored some of his lost lands.
  • Hyder Ali reached till the city of Madras and the British had to conclude a treaty in 1769 (treaty of Madras) with him to avoid their losses. Later the British reneged in carrying out their end of the treaty which led to second Mysore war.
  • The  second Anglo-Mysore war took place between 1780 and 1784. Mysore was in alliance with the Marathas and Nizam. Mysore even captured Arcot (or Carnatic).
  • However, Hyder Ali died in the course of the battle in December, 1782 passing on the legacy to his son Tipu Sultan.
  • Tipu Sultan continued the war which ended with truce and the treaty of Mangalore was signed in 1784. All the territories taken by both the parties were restored.

The struggle for power among the Marathas made easy for the British to interfere in their affairs. There were two factions —

  1. Peshwa Sawai Madhav Rao (supported by Nana Phadnis)
  2. Ex- Peshwa Raghunath Rao (supported by the British)
  • Raghunath Rao was aggrieved because of his ouster from the throne of Peshwa . Thus, he went to take help from the British who used the opportunity to wage war on the Marathas with the help of the British.                                            THE ANGLO-MYSORE AND ANGLO-MARATHA WARS
  • The British marched from Calcutta through central India to Ahmedabad winning battles en route but eventually the war reached a stalemate and ended with the treaty of Salbai in 1782. As per the treaty, the status quo was maintained and it led to peace between the Marathas and the British for 20 years.
  • Moreover, the British recovered their lost territories from Hyder Ali (who was dead by then) by making the Maratha & exert pressure on Mysore.
  • This was an intelligent move as the most dreaded state of Mysore was isolated. This turned the tide in favour of British in the third Anglo-Mysore war in 1790 – 1792.


Modern History

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