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Technology Achievement Index (TAI)

Technology Achievement Index (TAI)

  • This index was introduced in HDR, 2001. TAI aims to capture how well a country is creating and diffusing technology and building a human skill base. Thus, this index reflects the capacity to participate in the technological innovations of the network age.
  • It is not simply a measure of which country is leading in global technology, but focuses on how well a country is leading in creating and using technology.

TAI focuses on four dimensions of technological capacity that are important for reaping the benefits of the network age:

(i) Creation of Technology :

TAI uses two indicators to capture the level of innovation in the society:

  • Number of patents granted per capita to reflect current level of activities.
  • Receipts of Royalty and license fees from abroad per capita, to reflect the stock of successful innovations of the past that are still useful and hence have market value.  Technology Achievement Index (TAI)

(ii) Diffusion of Recent Innovations: It is measured by

  • Diffusion of the Interest
  • Share of High and Medium technology products exports in the total export of the country.

(iii) Diffusion of Old Innovations: It is measured by

  • Number of Telephones per capita
  • Electricity consumption per capita

(iv) Human Skills: This dimension is included because both creators and users of new technology need skills. Two indicators are used to reflect human skills.

  • Mean years of schooling measured by combined Gross Enrolment Ratio
  • Gross Enrolment Ratio of tertiary students enrolled in Science, Mathematics and Engineering
  • TAI estimates were prepared for 72 countries only due to lack of data availability for other countries. These countries have been divided into four categories.  Technology Achievement Index (TAI)
  • Leaders (TAI >5). Countries like Finland, USA, Sweden and Japan in this category.
  • Potential Leaders (0.49 > TAI >35) Spain, Italy, Hong Kong etc. fell in this category.
  • Dynamic Adopters (0.34 > TAI >20) Brazil, China, India, Indonesia etc. were in this group.
  • Marginalized (TAI < 0.20)
  • India ranked 63rd among 72 countries in 2001 with TAI value of 0.201. However, Indian performance on most fronts was disappointing except on the front of High and Medium Technology exports whose value was about 16.6% of total Indian exports.  Technology Achievement Index (TAI)

ALSO READ: https://www.brainyias.com/iasbuzz/nano-technology/

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