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Smart Fencing Of Indian Borders

Smart Fencing Of Indian Borders


  • Indian Army is working on converting the existing border fence into a smart fence integrated with several sensors through a hybrid model.
  • The smart border fencing projects built under the Comprehensive Integrated Border Management System (CIBMS) programme is the first of its kind in the country.
  • The smart fencing will include a web of surveillance, communication and data storage devices that would create an invisible electronic barrier on land, water, in air and underground.
  • It will enable surveillance during difficult weather conditions and reduce the need for physical patrolling of the borders.
  • It will rely on thermal imaging, infra-red and laser-based intruder alarms to stop infiltration.
  • The launch of two pilot projects of ‘smart fencing’ along India’s International Border with Pakistan, is being implemented at a 60 km patch. A part of the project is functional.
  • The smart fencing project will initially be implemented to cover gaps in the physical fencing. Eventually, this technology will be implemented across the entire border, which is planned to be launched by December.
  • The BSF had taken up the initiative as part of the comprehensive integrated border management system. Comprehensive Integrated Border Management System (CIBMS) would provide for round-the-clock laser-guided surveillance of the borders.

About Smart Fence

  • The smart border fencing projects have been built under the Comprehensive Integrated Border Management System (CIBMS) programme along Indo-Pakistan and Indo-Bangladesh international borders.
  • Smart fencing at the borders is a technological solution devised to address the security issues in the border-states.
  • It has hi-tech surveillance system that would create an invisible electronic barrier on land, water, air and underground and would help security forces to detect and foil infiltration bids in most difficult terrains.

Significance Of Smart Fencing Project

  • The smart fencing project is expected to be a massive boon for monitoring security situations in border areas. It will virtually become impossible for terrorists to infiltrate into the Indian side of the border. Thus, making our borders more secure.
  • With this smart fencing, the number of casualties of soldiers on borders would get minimised and the stress level among them too is expected to reduce to a large extent.
  • For India, a total of 2,026 km border is vulnerable. After the current project, similar project in under progress along the India-Bangladesh border.

About Comprehensive Integrated Border Management System (CIBMS) | Smart Fencing Of Indian Borders

  • It is a robust and integrated system that is capable of addressing the gaps in the present system of border security by seamlessly integrating human resources, weapons, and high-tech surveillance equipment.
  • It improves the capability of Border Security Force (BSF) in detecting and controlling the cross border crimes like illegal infiltration, smuggling of contraband goods, human trafficking and cross border terrorism etc.
  • It also improves situational awareness to facilitate prompt decision making and quick reaction to emerging situations.
  • It involves deployment of a range of state-of-the-art surveillance technologies — o Thermal imagers, infra-red and laser-based intruder alarms.
    • Radars, sonar systems to secure riverine borders.
    • Aerostats for aerial surveillance.
    • Unattended ground sensors that can help detect intrusion bids.
    • A command and control system that shall receive data from all surveillance devices in real time.
    • Fibre-optic sensors.
  • 2 pilot projects covering about 71 Kms on Indo-Pakistan Border (10 Kms) and Indo-Bangladesh Border (61 Kms) of CIBMS have been completed.
  • In 2018, BSF undertook the project BOLD-QIT (Border Electronically Dominated QRT Interception Technique) to equip Indo-Bangladesh borders with different kind of sensors in unfenced riverine area of Brahmaputra and its tributaries.     (Smart Fencing Of Indian Borders)

Role of technology in Border Management

  • Checking infiltration: It can be help to detect infiltration via land, underwater, air and tunnels by deploying close circuit television cameras, thermal imagers and night vision devices etc.
  • Upgrading existing system: Technology can be integrated with the existing systems to facilitate better detection and interception by the man behind the machine. o At present, border guarding is almost fully dependent on human surveillance. This makes border management a time-consuming and complex task.
  • Improved Intelligence inputs and Surveillance: through Remote sensing satellites, radar satellites and satellites with synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensors which are capable of providing day and night all terrain and all-weather inputs.
  • Facilitate Cross Border Trade: For example: Blockchain technology can help quickly and securely process transactions, it also makes much easier to identify and trace illegitimate trade.
  • Madhukar Gupta Committee on border protection had recommended the Union Government to strengthen border protection and address vulnerabilities in fencing along the Indo-Pakistan border. This led to implementation of CIBMS in 2015.

Issues related to Border management in India

  • Porosity of borders: International borders with Pakistan and Bangladesh run through diverse terrain including deserts, marshes, plains and mountains. This porosity of borders facilitates various illegal activities such as smuggling, trafficking of humans, drugs and arms and infiltration.
  • Contested International borders: History of mistrust and constant border skirmishes with Pakistan along line of control (LOC) makes India highly susceptible to cross-border terrorism. Similarly, India’s border with Myanmar is threatened by several insurgent groups that have found sanctuaries in jungles along the border. Political boundary issues of “enclaves and adverse possessions” in Bangladesh have resulted in political sensitivity along the entire eastern border.
  • Inefficiency in Border management: Indian borders continue to be guarded by military and police forces that report to different ministries in the Centre and states, making the border management task arduous and leading to duplication of efforts by the security forces.
  • Lack of critical infrastructure: Critical infrastructure such as observation towers, bunkers, Border Flood Lights etc. are lacking in many border areas which also prevent deployment of hi-tech equipment.

Poor intelligence and resource efficiency: Security forces are ill-equipped to handle border management given poor intelligence capabilities and severe resource deficiency



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