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Scientific Management Movement

Scientific Management Movement

Management is the art of getting things done.

There have been two important events in history which influenced the nature of the organizations and organizational management.

  1. Enlightenment (Renaissance- 16th Century)– This was the era where there was restlessness and rejection pertaining to control of church, irrationality, superstitions, unscientific approaches, feudalism, monarchies etc. This era brought new concepts such as rule of law, sovereignty, democracy, citizenship, science, justice, equality, rationality etc. These developments had a deep impact on the nature of the state. Thereby, it affected and increased the size and operations of the state. The responsibilities of the state increased and acquired a positive character.

Democracy is a spiritual concept because it enshrines a society where people can live a life of dignity and choice.

  1. Industrial Revolution (17th and 18th Century)– It replaced the hands with machines. The production increased manifolds. They organizations became larger and more complex in nature. The style of management which were used pre- industrial revolution continued post- industrial revolution as well. This created incongruence between the nature of management and the requirements of the organizations. This led to failure, malfunctioning and inefficiency of the organizations. This worried a large number of management practitioners.

 

There was a concern regarding the failure of the organizations. They required a type of response which was not available at that point of time. This concern was more visible in the context of the functionaries or practitioners of the private industrial organizations. Few of the important names being

 

  1. Charles Babbage
  2. R.H. Towne
  3. Metcalfe
  4. Halsey
  5. Gantt
  6. Gilbreth
  7. Taylor

 

F.W. Taylor assumes importance in this regard. He is considered to be the father of scientific management. All of the above agreed that as far as organizational management is concerned, it should be based on the science of management. And this science of management should be replacing the “rule of thumb”.

Rule of Thumb– It refers to an approach towards work which is based on limited experience and limited memory being devoid of scientism, professionalism and rationalism.

Science of Management– It refers to a systematized study of the part of the reality in order to develop cause- consequence relationship of that reality. Management should be based on scientific approach and not memory and experience or ad-hocism. It refers towards a scientific approach to understand and explain management.

This idea became popular and acceptable to the extent that almost all the organizations (private and public) started emphasizing on science of management. It created an environment called as Scientific Management Movement. Scientism in Management became popular.

Public Administration by G.Rajput

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