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Schemes of Ministry of Environment, Forests And Climate Change

Schemes of Ministry of Environment, Forests And Climate Change

Introduction

  • The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) is the nodal agency of the administrative structure under the Government of India which is tasked with the planning, promotion, co-ordination and regulating the implementation of the environmental and forestry policies and programmes in the nation.
  • While their task, the Ministry is guided by the principle of sustainable development and also the improvement of human well-being.

Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI) 2019

  • India scored 62.93 and ranked 11th in the Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI).
  • Published by: German watch, CAN International and the New Climate Institute.
  • The index evaluates and compares the climate protection performance of 56 countries and the EU.
  • In 2019 index, no country performed well enough to reach the ranking very good, meaning that no country has yet made it to one of the top three places in the rankings.
  • However, Sweden leads the ranking, followed by Morocco and Lithuania.

‘Green Wall’ of India  | Schemes of Ministry of Environment, Forests And Climate Change 

  • The Centre is mulling an ambitious plan to create a 1,400km long and 5km wide green belt from Gujarat to the Delhi-Haryana border.
  • The plan is inspired by Africa’s ‘Great Green Wall’ project, running from Senegal (West) to Djibouti (East), which came into effect in 2007.
  • The overarching objective of India’s Green Wall will be to address the rising rates of land degradation and the eastward expansion of the Thar desert.
  • The green belt being planned from Porbandar to Panipat will help in restoring degraded land through afforestation along the Aravali hill range. It will also act as a barrier for dust coming from the deserts in western India and Pakistan.
  • The Aravali has been identified as one of the key degraded zones to be taken up for greening under India’s target to restore 26 million hectares (mha) of its land.

National Clean Air Programme (NCAP)

  • It was launched in January 2019.
  • The Central government launched a five-year action plan with a tentative target of 20-30% reduction in concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 by 2024, with 2017 as the base year.
  • Unlike earlier initiatives which focussed largely on the national capital region, this is a comprehensive pan-India air pollution abatement scheme for 102 cities which were identified by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) on the basis of their ambient air quality data between 2011 and 2015.

India Cooling Action Plan (ICAP)

  • Launched in March 2019.
  • Reducing cooling demand by 20-25% and refrigeration demand by 25-30% by the year 2037 are the goals of this plan.
  • Cooling requirement is cross-sectoral and an essential part for economic growth and is required across different sectors of the economy such as residential and commercial buildings, cold-chain, refrigeration, transport and industries.

Fourth session of the United Nations Environment Assembly (UNEA)

  • It was held in Nairobi, Kenya.
  • Theme of UNEA-4: ‘Innovative Solutions for Environmental Challenges and Sustainable Consumption and Production’.
  • Two resolutions adopted related to Single-use Plastics and Sustainable Nitrogen management.
  • UNEP also released 6th edition of the Global Environment Outlook Report (GEO). It outlines the current state of the environment illustrates possible future environmental trends and analyses the effectiveness of policies.

Bharat Standard IV to Bharat Standard VI

  • The country has leapfrogged from Bharat Standard (BS) IV to Bharat Standard VI for vehicle emission norms and from 1st April 2020, vehicles will be BS-VI compliant.
  • In order to comply with BS-VI norms, the vehicle manufacturers need to move to the new technology to make vehicles compliant with the BS VI standards.
  • The switch to BS-VI vehicles was to happen in 2022 but looking at the poor air condition, the move was advanced by four years.
  • All vehicles will have to follow new standards (BS -VI) from 1st April, 2020. The standards cover four and two-wheelers and commercial vehicles.
  • At present, BS IV and BS III fuels are available across India.
  • Due to their use, hazardous pollutants in the air are increasing leading to health ailments like Asthma, Bronchitis, heart diseases and even cancer.

India State of Forest Report (ISFR)

  • The biennial report India State of Forest Report (ISFR), 2019 was released.
  • The total forest and tree cover of the country is 80.73 million hectare which is 24.56% of the geographical area of the country. As compared to the assessment of 2017, there is an increase of 5,188 sq. km in the total forest and tree cover.
  • The top five States (UT) in terms of increase in forest cover: Karnataka>Andhra Pradesh>Kerala>Jammu & Kashmir>Himachal Pradesh.

All India Tiger Estimation – 2018

  • Results of the fourth cycle of All India Tiger Estimation – 2018 were released on International Tiger Day (July 29), 2019.
  • According to this census, the count of tigers in India has risen to 2967 from 2,226 in 2014.

CAMPA Funds  | Schemes of Ministry of Environment, Forests And Climate Change 

  • Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority, (CAMPA Funds) were handed over to various states.
  • The fund will be utilised for the Compensatory Afforestation, Catchment Area Treatment, Wildlife Management, Assisted Natural Regeneration, Forest Fire Prevention and Control Operations, Soil and Moisture Conservation Works in the forest, Improvement of Wildlife Habitat, Management of Biological Diversity and Biological Resources, Research in Forestry and Monitoring of CAMPA works etc.
  • Compensatory afforestation means that every time forest land is diverted for non-forest purposes such as mining or industry, the user agency pays for planting forests over an equal area of non-forest land, or when such land is not available, twice the area of degraded forest land.

Forest-PLUS 2.0 Programme

  • US Agency for International Development (USAID) and India’s Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEF&CC) have launched Forest-PLUS 2.0.
  • Forest-PLUS is a five-year programme initiated in December 2018 that focuses on developing tools and techniques to bolster ecosystem management and harnessing ecosystem services in forest landscape management.
  • Under these, field tests, innovative tools and approaches for Indian forest management were developed. Promotion of bio-briquettes in Sikkim, introduction of solar heating systems in Rampur and development of an agro-forestry model in Hoshangabad were some of the achievements of this programme.
  • Forest-PLUS 2.0 comprises pilot project in three landscapes — Gaya in Bihar, Thiruvananthapuram in Kerala and Medak in Telangana. The choice of these sites was driven by the contrast in their landscapes – Bihar is a forest deficit area, Telangana is a relatively drier area where there is ample scope for community livelihood enhancement and Kerala is rich in biodiversity.

Indian Vision Rhino 2020

  • Aim: To translocate Rhinos from Kaziranga National Park and Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary to five other protected areas.
  • An effort to attain a wild population of at least 3,000 greater one-horned rhinos spread over seven protected areas in Assam by 2020.

MOSAiC expedition  | Schemes of Ministry of Environment, Forests And Climate Change 

  • The MOSAiC mission stands for Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate is spearheaded by the Alfred Wegener Institute in Germany.
  • It is the largest ever Arctic expedition in history.
  • It will be the first to conduct a study of this scale at the North Pole for an entire year.
  • Objectives – To parameterise the atmospheric, geophysical, oceanographic and all other possible variables in the Arctic, and use it to more accurately forecast the changes in our weather systems.
  • It will help the researchers better understand the impact of climate change and aid in improved weather projections.
  • Hundreds of researchers from 19 countries take part in this exceptional endeavour.
  • The 32-year-old polar researcher from Kerala will be the only Indian aboard the mission.
  • First mission – In 1893-1896, Norwegian explorer Fridtjof first managed to seal his wooden expedition ship, Fram, into the North Pole

Secure Himalaya Project

  • The aim is to protect locally and globally important biodiversity, land and forest resources in the high Himalayan ecosystem are spread across four states of Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttarakhand, and Sikkim.  (Schemes of Ministry of Environment, Forests And Climate Change )
  • The project is six years long and is intended for different landscapes, including Changthang (Jammu and Kashmir), Lahaul-Pangi and Kinnaur (Himachal Pradesh), Gangotri-Govind and Darma-Byans Valley in Pithoragarh (Uttarakhand) and Kanchenjunga-Upper Teesta Valley (Sikkim).
  • The project includes the protection of snow leopards and other endangered species and their habitats, as well as the protection of their livelihoods.

Swachh – Nirmal Tat Abhiyaan

  • Objective: To keep beaches safe and make people aware of the value of coastal habitats – in Beaches across ten states / UTs.
  • The campaign will be organized on the beaches after consultation with the state governments.
  • The Environment Education Division and the Society for Integrated Coastal Management (SICOM) will be responsible for its implementation under the Ministry of Environment.
  • The best three beaches will be suitably awarded a certificate of appreciation

Green Skill Development Programme

  • Objective: Skilling young Indians, in particular dropouts and increasing the supply of qualified employees.
  • The Environmental and Forest Skills Development Initiative is designed to allow India’s youth to gain employment and/or self-employment.
  • Both courses must comply with the National Skills Qualifications Framework (NSQF).
  • The vast network and resources of the Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Hubs / Resource Partners (RPs) are used.

PARIVESH (Pro Active and Responsive facilitation by Interactive, Virtuous and Environmental Single window Hub)

  • Objective: The scheme aims to monitor compliance records, including geo-tagged site photos by regulatory authorities.
  • It is a web-based, role-based workflow framework that has been built for online submission and monitoring of proposals submitted by proponents of Environmental, Land, Wildlife and Coastal Protection Zone Clearances from federal, state and district level authorities.
  • The system has been designed, developed and hosted by the MoEFC, with technical support from National Informatics Centre, (NIC)
  • It also provides access to the previous Environment Impact Assessment Reports.

 

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