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  • Centre for Artificial Intelligence and Robotics (CAIR), Bangalore has developed a variety of controllers and manipulators for Gantry, SCARA and other types of robots. These were supplied to Public Sector Units such as HAL and sister DRDO labs.
  • CAIR has gone on to develop a prototype Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) with the aim of attaining autonomous capability. This involved in- house construction of mobile robot platforms, integration of infrared sensors with the vehicle, and the development and integration of path planning software.
  • A useful offshoot of this work was the development of an intelligent wheelchair that would help physically challenged people both in hospitals and homes. One version of the wheelchair could be operated using human voice commands.
  • Another was equipped with a camera system to get information about the surrounding space for its path planning. CAIR has developed CHATUR Robot with vision sensors which can pick objects in its visual field.
  • Other premier institute where Robotics Research is going on is: Centre for Robotics and Mechatronics, IIT, Kanpur.


  • A humanoid robot or an anthropomorphic robot is a robot with its overall appearance, based on that of the human body, allowing interaction with made-for-human tools or environments.
  • In general humanoid robots have a torso with a head, two arms and two legs, although some forms of humanoid robots may model only part of the body, for example, from the waist up.
  • Some humanoid robots may also have a ‘face’, with ‘eyes’ and ‘mouth’. Androids are humanoid robots built to aesthetically resemble a human.

A humanoid robot is an autonomous robot, because it can adapt to changes in its environment or itself and continue to reach its goal.

This is the main difference between humanoid and other kinds of robots. The capacities of a humanoid robot include:

  • self-maintenance (i.e. recharging itself)
  • autonomous learning (learn or gain new capabilities without outside assistance, adjust strategies based on the surroundings and adapt to new situations)
  • avoiding harmful situations to people, property, and itself
  • safe interacting with human beings and the environment


ASIMO (Advanced Step in Innovative MObility), a humanoid robot resembling a small astronaut wearing a backpack, was created by Honda in 2000 to be a helper to people.

At 130 cm tall and 54 kg, ASIMO was designed to operate in real-world environments, with the ability to walk or run on two feet at speeds up to 3.7 mph.


TOPIO (TOSY Ping Pong Playing Robot) is a bipedal humanoid robot designed to play table tennis against a human being. It has been developed since 2005 by TOSY, a robotics firm in Vietnam. TOPIO 3.0 stands approximately 1.88 m tall and weighs 120 kg. Every TOPIO uses an advanced artificial intelligence system to learn and continuously improve its skill level while playing.


  • Humanoid robots are used as a research tool in several scientific areas. Researchers need to understand the human body structure and behaviour (biomechanics) to build and study humanoid robots.
  • On the other side, the attempt to simulate the human body leads to a better understanding of it.
  • Human cognition is a field of study which is focused on how humans learn from sensory information in order to acquire perceptual and motor skills. This knowledge is used to develop computational models of human behaviour and it has been improving over time.
  • Although the initial aim of humanoid research was to build better orthosis and prosthesis for human beings, knowledge has been transferred between both disciplines. A few examples are: powered leg prosthesis for neuromuscularly impaired, ankle-foot orthosis, biological realistic leg prosthesis and forearm prosthesis.
  • Besides the research, humanoid robots are being developed to perform human tasks like personal assistance, where they should be able to assist the sick and elderly, and dirty or dangerous jobs.
  • Regular jobs like being a receptionist or a worker of an automotive manufacturing line are also suitable for humanoids. In essence, since they can use tools and operate equipment and vehicles designed for the human form, humanoids could theoretically perform any task a human being can, so long as they have the proper software. However, the complexity of doing so is deceptively great.
  • They are becoming increasingly popular for providing entertainment too. For example, Ursula, a female robot, sings, dances, and speaks to her audiences at Universal Studios.
  • Several Disney attractions employ the use of animatronics, robots that look, move, and speak much like human beings, in some of their theme park shows.
  • Humanoid robots, especially with artificial intelligence algorithms, could be useful for future dangerous and/or distant space exploration missions, without having the need to turn back around again and return to Earth once the mission is completed. ROBOTICS IN INDIA



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