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Relation With Nepal

Relation With Nepal

  • The British desire to extend their Indian Empire to its natural geographical frontier brought them into conflict, first of all, with the northern Kingdom of Nepal.
  • War with Nepal, 1814
  • The Nepal valley had been conquered in 1768 by the Gurkhas, a Western Himalayan tribe.
  • Gurkhas had gradually built up a powerful army and extended their sway from Bhutan in the East to the river Sutlej in the West.
  • From the Nepal Tarai, the Gurkha now began to push southward.
  • In the meanwhile, the British conquered Gorakhpur in 1801.
  • This brought the two expanding powers face to face across as ill-defined border.
  • In October 1814, a border clash between the border police of the two countries led to open war.
  • The British officials had expected an easy walk-over especially as their army attacked all along the 600 mile frontier.
  • But the Gurkhas defended themselves with vigor and bravery.
  • The British armies were defeated again and again.
  • In the long run, however, the Gurkhas could not survive.
  • The British were far superior in men, money, and materials.
  • In April 1815, they occupied Kumaon, and on 15th May, they forced the brilliant Gurkha Commander Amar Singh Thapa to surrender.
  • The Government of Nepal was now compelled for peace.
  • But the negotiations for peace soon broke down.
  • The Government of Nepal would not accept the British demand for the stationing of a Resident at Kathmandu, capital Nepal.
  • It was realized that to accept a subsidiary alliance with the British amounted to signing away Nepal’s independence.
  • Fighting was resumed early in 1816.
  • The British forces won important victories and reached within 50 miles of Kathmandu.
  • In the end, the Nepal Government had to make a peace agreement (known as Treaty of Sugauli) on British terms.

  • Nepal Government accepted a British Resident.
  • It ceded the districts of Garhwal and Kumaon and abandoned claims to the Tarai areas.
  • It also withdrew from Sikkim.
  • The agreement held many advantages for the British such as:
    • Their Indian Empire now reached the Himalayas;
    • They gained greater facilities for trade with Central Asia;
    • They also obtained sites for important hill-stations such as Simla, Mussoorie, and Nainital; and
    • The Gurkhas gave added strength to the British-Indian army by joining it in large numbers.
  • The relations of the British with Nepal were quite friendly thereafter.
  • Both parties to the War of 1814 had learnt to respect each other’s fighting capacity and preferred to live at peace with each other.

Relation With Nepal-  Relation With Nepal – Relation With Nepal – Relation With Nepal

 

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