REDD and REDD+
- The United Nations Programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation.
- Headquarters: Geneva, Switzerland.
- Membership: 64 Partner Countries.
- It is a multilateral collaborative programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).
- It was created in 2008 in response to the UNFCCC decisions on the Bali Action Plan and REDD at COP-13.
- It partners with developing countries to support them in establishing the technical capacities needed to implement REDD+ and meet UNFCCC requirements for REDD+ results-based payments.
- Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries (REDD+)
- Voluntary climate change mitigation approach that has been developed by Parties to the UNFCCC.
- REDD+ goes beyond simply deforestation and forest degradation.
- It aims to incentivize developing countries to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, conserve forest carbon stocks, sustainably manage forests and enhance forest carbon stocks.
- In addition to the UN-REDD Programme, other initiatives assisting countries that are engaged in REDD+ include the World Bank’s Forest Carbon Partnership Facility, the Global Environment Facility, the Green Climate Fund etc.
- REDD was first proposed by the Coalition for Rainforest Nations (CfRN) at the 11th Conference of Parties (CoP) to the UNFCCC at Montreal in 2005. It was then termed as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation in Developing Countries. At the 13th CoP at Bali in 2007, the Bali Action Plan was adopted which included the REDD+ initiative.
- The Warsaw Framework on REDD-plus was adopted at the CoP 19 at Warsaw in 2013. It included,
- A work programme for results-based finance to developing countries
- The modalities for national forest monitoring systems
- A technical assessment of emission levels
- The modalities for measuring, reporting, and verifying (MRV)
- The UNFCCC rulebook on REDD+ was completed at the CoP21 at Paris in 2015 where all the outstanding decisions related to REDD+ were taken.
Significance of REDD+
- REDD+ provides positive incentives for not just reduction in deforestation but also for enhancement of forest cover, including its quality and the expanse.
- The incentives are based on the financial value that is attached to the carbon stored and enhanced in the soil and biomass of standing forests.
- This initiative also gives importance to livelihood improvement, biodiversity conservation, and food security services for communities dependent on forests.
Countries which undertake sustainable management of forest resources, going beyond a reduction in deforestation, will be entitled to receive funds and resources as incentives.
National Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation+ Strategy
- It has been prepared by Indian Council of Forestry Research & Education (ICFRE), Dehradun.
- It is one of tools to further supplement India’s commitment to 2015 Paris agreement.
- It will support empowerment of youth cadres as community foresters to lead charge at local level.
- Under it, Green Skill Development programme will be launched for imparting forestry-related specialised skills among the youth.
India and REDD+
- India is going to benefit from the Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation plus initiative in the following manner:
- India’s sustained pro-conservation efforts and sustainable management of forests which have increased the forest cover and enhanced the carbon stack stand to be rewarded for its contribution towards providing carbon services to the international community as well as for providing the local communities access to traditional goods and services.
- India’s domestic acts, policies, and regulations have been framed in such a way that the benefits deriving from the REDD+ initiative shall accrue to the local communities. This shall further strengthen the community efforts towards forest conservation and management.
- All REDD+ deliberations at the international level recognize, respect, an encourage the participation of local communities in the implementation and monitoring of REDD+ initiative.
- India’s position on REDD and REDD+ has been that the two initiatives should not be viewed in isolation. It had stressed that forest conservation and their sustainable management must go hand-in-hand with the efforts to reduce deforestation. India’s stand was accepted at the 13th CoP at Bali and got incorporated in the Bali Action Plan. Since then, REDD has come to be viewed under the broader framework of REDD+.