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RECENT UPDATES ON NANOTECHNOLOGY

RECENT UPDATES ON NANOTECHNOLOGY

Electronic Memory 

  • The University of Pennsylvania has become the seat of an amazing investigation developing a sophisticated sort of electronic memory based on nanowires.
  • These storage devices (memories) are basically designed to be implemented on diverse gadgets enabling a storage capacity of three bit values (0-1-2) instead the conventional capacity of just two bit (0-1) values.
  • There are several reasons why the creation of electronic memory based on nanowires is superior, not to mention the incredible advantage of work in a non-binary system. Nanowires are excellent for information storage because they have defect-free crystalline structures which make it more flexible.
  • Moreover the developing of information storage from nanowires can be done via “bottom-up” approaches through the use of the natural tendency of tiny structures to self-assemble into larger structures that may be able to break free of the limitations faced by traditional “top-down’ methods, such as patterning a circuit onto a silicon wafer by depositing a nanowire thin film.

Clothes that Clean themselves | RECENT UPDATES ON NANOTECHNOLOGY

  • A group of researchers located in Australia at Monash University in Victoria are developing a process that could lead to self cleaning wool and silk.
  • They have found a way to coat fibers with titanium dioxide nano-crystals, which break down food and dirt in sunlight.

Photolithography and Nanolithography 

  • It is also known as ‘optical lithography’. Photolithography is a process used in micro fabrication which is the removal of thin films selectively (or the bulk of a substrate), by utilizing a light to transfer a geometric pattern from a photo mask to a light-sensitive chemical on the substrate.
  • Moreover is a process by which patterns on a semiconductor material can be defined using light. A series of chemical treatment’s then engraves the exposure pattern into the material underneath the photo resist. In a complex integrated circuit, a wafer will go through the photolithographic cycle up to 50 times.
  • However a group of scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has made the first direct measurements of the infinitesimal expansion and collapse of thin polymer films used in the manufacture of advanced semiconductor devices.
  • It is a matter of only a couple of nanometres, but it can be enough to impact the worldwide chip manufacturing in the forthcoming years and could affect the development of new technology in this area.
  • To develop modern microprocessors, manufacturers use ‘photolithography’, the highest technology in the nano-scale dimension of printing technology. Photolithography has been a perfect way to produce massively integrated circuits and computer chips.

Nanomaterials | RECENT UPDATES ON NANOTECHNOLOGY

The nanomaterials field includes subfields which develop or study materials having unique properties arising from their nanoscale dimensions.

  • Interface and colloid science has given rise to many materials which may be useful in nanotechnology, such as carbon nanotubes and other fullerenes, and various nanoparticles and nanorods. Nanomaterials with fast ion transport are related also to nanoionics and nanoelectronics.
  • Progress has been made in using these materials for medical applications;
  • Nanoscale materials are sometimes used in solar cells which combats the cost of traditional Silicon solar cells
  • Development of applications incorporating semiconductor nanoparticles to be used in the next generation of products, such as display technology, lighting, solar cells and biological imaging

Nanorobotics 

  • It is the technology of creating robots or nanomachines at the microscopic scale of nanometres (10-9 meters) or at least very close of this scale. The nanorobots are also named ‘nanobots’, ‘nanoids’ or ‘nanites’.
  • Scientists have been developing these robots to carry out many important functions in different professional fields such as medicine, engineering, manufacturing and many others even though non- biological nanorobots are yet to be created.

Nanomedicine 

  • Nanomedicine is moving forward in drug delivery, improving the bioavailability of a drug. That is the presence of drug molecules in the perfect place of the body where it will do the most good.
  • A very important aspect of the possible future of the nanomedicine, is necessary be informed about the Neuro-electronic interfaces which are a visionary objective of develop devices capable to make direct connections with the human nervous system.

Optical Uses | RECENT UPDATES ON NANOTECHNOLOGY

  • Advances have been made to produce the first anti-reflective ultrathin polymer sunglasses.
  • In optical surgery, nano-optics increases the precision of pupil repair and other type of surgery using laser technology.

Nanotoxicology

  • Nanotoxicology is the study of the toxicity of nanomaterials. Because of quantum size effects and large surface area to volume ratio, nanomaterials have unique properties compared with their larger counterparts.
  • Nanotoxicology is a branch of bionanoscience which deals with the study and application of toxicity of nanomaterials.
  • Nanomaterials, even when made of inert elements like gold, become highly active at nanometre dimensions.
  • Nanotoxicological studies are intended to determine whether and to what extent these properties may pose a threat to the environment and to human beings.
  • For instance, Diesel nanoparticles have been found to damage the cardiovascular system in a mouse model.

Nanopollution

  • Nanopollution is a generic name for all waste generated by nanodevices or during the nanomaterials manufacturing process. This kind of waste may be very dangerous because of its size.
  • It can float in the air and might easily penetrate animal and plant cells causing unknown effects. Most human-made nanoparticles do not appear in nature, so living organisms may not have appropriate means to deal with nanowaste.
  • It is probably one great challenge to nanotechnology: how to deal with its nano pollutants and nanowaste. RECENT UPDATES ON NANOTECHNOLOGY

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

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