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Q7. How did the opposition to Russian Revolution manifest itself?

The October Revolution had been almost completely peaceful but it faced opposition from various quarters later on.

After Russia pulled out of World War I, millions of Russian soldiers filtered home. They were hungry, tired, and wanted their jobs back. There were shortages of food as farmers had not yet adjusted to new system of land ownership, farmers began to grow just enough produce for themselves; there was no incentive to grow more. There were also no jobs to be had. Without a war to support, factories no longer had vast orders to fill.

In June 1918, Russia broke out in civil war. It was the Whites (those against the Soviets, which included monarchists, liberals, and other socialists) against the Reds (the Bolshevik regime). Troops of foreign powers — England, France, Japan, United States and other — joined them. The Civil War lasted over two years and was bloody, brutal, and cruel. The Reds won but at great expense of thousands of lives.

War raged till 1920. By this time the ‘Red Army’ of the new state was in control of almost all the lands of the old Czarist empire. The Red Army was badly equipped and composed mainly of workers and peasants. However, it won over better equipped and better trained forces.

The Russian Civil War dramatically changed the fabric of Russia

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