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Q6. Brief notes on the Crises in Non-aligned Movement.

There has never been complete solidarity within the non-aligned movement. Even at the Bandung Conference 1955) that was a preliminary meet leading to non- aligned summit at Belgrade in 1961, criticism was voiced against the concept of positive neutralism as advocated by Nehru. With the passage of time the movement has all the more ceased to be as compact it used to be because of phenomenal increase in its membership.

The first serious crisis arose at the time of Sino-Indian conflict of 1962. It seemed the non-aligned countries remained neutral between India and China either because the aggression was not so clear to them or they did not want to choose between the two big countries.

Fidel Castro of Cuba who is considered to be a close ally of Soviet Russia, made a controversial speech and questioned anti-bloc tendency of the non-aligned at the Algiers Conference held in 1973. So, for the first time it was at the Algiers Conference that it was discussed if non- alignment is a product of cold-war or anti-colonial struggle.

It was at the Colombo Conference held in 1976 that Cuba’s role in Angola came under sharp criticism. President Gadaffi warned that Egypt was opposed to the rights of Palestinians as it wanted to settle with Israel.

Singapore along with some Asian countries strongly objected to terms such as ‘genuine independence’ and ‘neocolonialism’. The South- Asian countries, they said, had chosen the path of development through industrialisation by invitation. They hoped to transform their economies by inviting foreign capital and creating free trade zone.

By the end of the 1980s, the Movement was facing the great challenge brought about by the collapse of the socialist block. The end of the clash between the two antagonistic blocks that was the reason for its existence, name and essence was seen by some as the beginning of the end for the Movement of Non-Aligned Countries.

The Movement of Non-Aligned Countries could not spare itself difficulties to act effectively in an adverse international political situation marked by hegemonic positions and unipolarity as well as by internal difficulties and conflicts given the heterogeneity of its membership and, thus, its diverse interests.

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