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Q5. Enumerate the events of revolutionary movements in Europe in 1848.


After the revolts of 1830 had been suppressed, the revolutionary movements in Europe again gained momentum. In 1848, revolutions broke out in almost every country of Europe, which dealt a mortal blow to the countries of the Holy Alliance. Early in 1848, there was a revolt in Italy.

In February, revolution broke out in France and Louis Philippe who had been installed as king after the 1830 revolution fled away. France again became a republic for some time but power was usurped by Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, popularly known as Napoleon III, a nephew of Napoleon, in 1852. France finally became a republic in 1871 when the empire of Louis Bonaparte collapsed.

The revolution in France was soon followed by uprisings in many states of Germany. The rulers of many German states, including Prussia which was a member of the Holy Alliance, agreed to introduce many reforms. Simultaneously, there were uprisings in towns of the Austrian empire, another member of the Holy Alliance.

The revolutions of 1848 failed to overthrow the established oppressive regimes of Europe though they considerably weakened them. The most significant aspect of the 1848 revolutions was the emergence of a new political force in Europe.

The workers were a major force in the revolutions of 1848. Their aim was not merely the overthrow of autocracies but also the destruction of the economic system that had grown with the Industrial Revolution— capitalism. Other participants in the revolutions— the capitalists, the merchants and other people belonging to the middle class—wanted constitutional reforms. They looked upon the demands of the workers for social revolution with horror.

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