Q4. Describe the events leading to Declaration of Independence in America
The representatives of the 13 American colonies met as a group in what is called the First Continental -Congress at Philadelphia in 1774. This Congress appealed to the English King to remove restrictions on industries and trade and not to impose any taxes without their consent. The King declared their action a mutiny and ordered troops to be sent to suppress it. The colonies then planned for military defense with local troops or militia.
In 1775, the first battle of the revolution was fought when a thousand soldiers met the colonial militia in Independence.
The Declaration on 4 July 1776, the Second Continental Congress asserted ‘that all men are created equal,Congress adopted the Declaration of that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights, that among these rights are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness’. The Declaration advanced the principle that the people are the source of authority and affirmed the people’s right to set up their own government.
The Declaration also stated that the American colonies had been oppressed by the English government and that ‘these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states’.
Up to this time the colonists had been fighting for their rights as Englishmen. After the Declaration in 1776, they fought for their right to be an independent nation.
George Washington was put in command of the American forces. The first battles took place in and around Boston. Then English sent a force to Canada with the plan to march it south to meet another English force, and so cut the American colonies in half.
But an English general spoiled the plan. As the English marched south, the Americans met and defeated them.
This victory of the rough American militia-men against a trained British force gave the Americans confidence.
The French government now decided to help the colonies with troops, supplies and funds—to embarrass the English, Frances old enemy. Other enemies of English—Spain and Holland—were soon fighting the English elsewhere
Meanwhile, trouble was brewing for Britain at home. There was a threat of rebellion in Ireland; some leaders in Parliament were opposing the war with the colonists.
The war ended in 1781 when the English commander, Cornwallis, later to become Governor-General in India, surrendered. Two years later, in 1783, the Treaty of Paris was signed and the English recognized the independence of its 13 former colonies.