Q3. After the French Revolutions, how did the existing European Monarchies tried to protect stranglehold on power and what were the consequences?
The fear of revolutionary unrest served as the pretext for the right of other powers to intervene to maintain the existing order. In 1815, the rulers of Austria, Britain, Russia and Prussia formed an alliance with declared aim of to suppress any attempt by the people to overthrow a ruler whom these countries considered the ‘legitimate’ ruler of the country. The new ruler of France also soon joined this alliance.
At the behest of Czar Alexander I of Russia Austria, Russia and Prussia had formed another alliance which they called the Holy Alliance which was even more openly opposed to democratic ideas and movements than the first.
In many countries of Europe, the freedom of the press was abolished and a large number of spies were recruited to keep watch on the activities of the revolutionaries.
The oppressive measures introduced by the rulers failed to curb the revolutionary movements in Europe.
The seeds of revolution had taken root and were spreading rapidly across the face of Europe. In 1820 the revolutions started in Spain and spread to Greece, South America, and Germany. Most of these were put down, but Greece and the South American colonies won their independence, with a constitutional monarchy established in Greece and republics in South America.
In 1830 revolutions broke out in a number of countries. The French monarch fled away to England and was succeeded by Louis Philippe who promised to rule according to the wishes of the people.
There was a revolt in Belgium for freedom from Holland. Insurrections broke out in various states of Italy and Germany and in Poland. Although most of these revolts were suppressed, the independence of Belgium in 1839 was recognized.