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Q2. What is colonialism?

ANSWER:

Colonialism means the practice of acquiring colonies by conquest (or other means) and making them dependent. The country which is subjugated by a metropolitan capitalist country is described as a colony, and what happens in a colony is colonialism. Until recent years, most countries of Asia, Africa and other parts of the world were under the control of one or another imperialist country.

 

Bring about the differences in Imperialism and Colonialism

 

Imperialism Colonialism
Imperialism refers, more broadly, to control or influence that is exercised either formally or informally, directly or indirectly, politically or economically Colonialism usually implies formal political control, involving territorial annexation and loss of sovereignty.
Imperialism is a specifically European phenomenon Colonialism is the system prevalent in the colonies.
When we study imperialism we examine the impact of empire on the metropolis (home country) Here we study impact of empire on the colony.

 

Explain reasons for growth of ‘Imperialism’ write a note on the stages of imperialism.

Charles Beard wrote : “Imperialism is…..employment of the engines of government and diplomacy to acquire territories, protectorates, and on spheres of influence occupied usually by other races or peoples, and to promote industrial, trade, and investment opportunities …..”

the history of imperialism definitely points to economic exploitation as a primary driver in expansion of the empire by western countries. Capitalism generally developed out of feudalism, and was Responsible for colonization and imperialism. beginning from England in the thirteenth century, Feudalism as a system began to decay in different parts of Europe. The industrial revolution, the growth of towns, inter-feudal wars etc. led to this decline, social life in Europe thus began to change. this also involved a change from the feudal type economic organization to a different one where the control was no longer with the land owning aristocracies.

Independent groups of merchants and traders began dominating the economy. The growth of new classes formed the bases for mercantile capitalism. The kind of transformation made by each nation out of feudalism differed. For example in England capitalism grew faster than in any other European nations. France followed this transition and later Germany, Russia and others did the same. The motor for its expansion was the quest for protected markets and exclusive sources of raw materials.

Industrialization in Europe led the capitalists to look for raw materials and markets outside Europe. This search fueled imperial penetrations into Asia and Africa. The growth of capitalism had an important effect on the social and political life of people and social systems. Just it had on their economic life. Capitalism brought about the formation of two large classes- the capitalist class (bourgeoisie) and the working class. With capitalism began as era of private enterprises in the economic sphere and popular participation in the exercise of state power in the political sphere

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