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Q1. Why did the pursuit of colonies slow down during the initial period of Industrial Revolution?

Between 1775 and 1875, Europeans lost more territory than they acquired in North America and Latin America, because of successful revolutions. Spanish colonial rule from Mexico to Argentina was overturned. There was a widespread feeling in Europe that colonies were more trouble than they were worth and the sooner or later colonies would revolt and fight for independence. Benjamin Disraeli said “These wretched colonies will all be independent in a few years and are millstones around our necks.”

The pursuits and rivalries re-emerged in the last quarter of the 19th century. This new face of imperialism (1875-1914) is was new imperialism. New imperialism resulted because of the economic system that had developed as a result of Industrial Revolution. During this phase a few industrialized capitalist countries established their Political and economic control and domination over the rest of the world. The form of domination and control included direct colonial rule, sphere of influence and various types of commercial and economic agreements. New imperialist countries emerged viz. Germany, Italy, Belgium, USA and Japan. While, Britain and France continued to be powerful and expand. During this period power of Spain and Portugal declined.

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