Q1. What factors influenced and encouraged the rise of Arabs and Islamic Empire?
Muhammad, a prophet astute in statecraft and military strategy and an inspired statesman, changed the history and destiny of Arabia and of many other areas of the world. The new religion evolved into a way of life and recipe for community organization, providing a religious and ideological framework for uniting the Arab tribes, and a social and organizational framework for regulating the unified action of the nomads. The separate tribes had been re-formed into a Muslim-Arab Umma (community). The Qur’an is, among other things, a handbook for rules of war, prescribing the laws of treaties and of booty and commanding the faithful to Jihad, (holy war) against any who interfere with the practice of Islam. Muhammad had created powerful force that could now wrest control of much of the subcontinent.
Influence of from Roman and Persian empires which surrounded this area.
inspired by Islam Arab warriors believed that death in a holy war for the faith led to being transported instantly to Paradise.
Muslims were tolerant of Christians and Jews, Aramaic speaking peoples under Roman and Persian rule felt much closer kinship to the Arabs than to their rulers. Muslims charged only a special tax instead of forcing them to convert. The Caliph Umar who conquered Jerusalem in A.D. 640 guaranteed the safety of the Christian holy places.
Byzantine and Persian Empires were worn out from years of prolonged warfare against each other. Spanish Visigothic Empire was also suffering internal decay and was thus ready for a fall.
The Arabs had perfected a form of warfare suitable for the desert, and for those times and conditions.
The Arabs quickly conquered Syria, Palestine, Iraq, Egypt and Persia.