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Q1. Discuss the reasons and the process of colonization of N. America?

ANSWER:

colonization of Americas was result of clash and competition of European empires for twin ideas of locating sources of precious metals and expanding Christianity.

European countries started exploring unchartered territories because of increasing population and economic prosperity at home. They came to the Americas to increase their wealth & broaden their influence over world affairs.

During the 16th century Spaniards were extending their dominion in the New World and inspired English and French by the riches from colonies.

Initially the French colonialists established extensive fur trading network in the Canadian and Great Lakes region, and later in Louisiana. At the peak of their colonization, the French occupied the largest geographical area of North America of any European power, but they had the fewest settlers.

English Colonists were sponsored by common stock companies financed by wealthy Englishmen. the main source of labor and a large portion of the immigrants were indentured servants looking for new life in the overseas colonies.

Waves of religious repression in England led to the migration of about 20,000 Puritans to New England between 1629 and 1642 because England’s Charles I persecuted religious dissenters. The lure of cheap land, religious freedom and the right to improve themselves with their own hand attracted many other people.

In the 18th century, England drove France out of the eastern part of the continent and Canada. Once Great Britain began to colonize America, three types of colonies were created: royal, proprietary, and corporate. Although there were different types of colonies, they were all subjects of the king.

Colonies had started to develop in industries in wool, flax, and leather. In the north regions fishing and ship-building were becoming important. In the south, large plantations like feudal manors had grown up where tobacco and cotton were grown with slave labor brought from Africa.

English men and women constituted more than 90% of seventeenth-century colonists. But the following century brought an extraordinary shift toward multiethnic, multicultural diversity, as Germans, Scots-Irish, and, most especially, Africans (initially as slaves) arrived in increasingly large numbers. By the time of the American Revolution, scarcely half the population could claim descent from “English stock.”

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