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Q. Give an account of major landmarks in the growth of the discipline of public administration in the 20th century. What are the possible trends in its growth in the first decade of 219’ century?

Evolution of Public Administration Stages

Though Public administration as an activity has existed in human society from time immemorial, its emergence as a branch of study and learning is rather recent, going back no farther than the closing years of 19th century.

As a field of systematic study, the development of public administration has been only recent. The credit for making a beginning of the academic study of public administration goes to Woodrow Wilson. The view of the earlier writers like Wilson, Goodnow, Wiloughby, White, Luther Gullick, Fayol and Wiwick was that public administration was a separate activity with its own well marked field and principles. Its field was demarcated on the basis of the so-called politics administration dichotomy.

In the early part of the 20th century many American Universities began to take active interest in the reform movement in government, and thus scholars got attracted to the field of public administration.

The second period in the history of public administration can roughly be demarcated between 1920s to late 1930s. This was largely based on certain ‘principles’ of administration and it was the task of scholars to promote their application.

This period was opened with the publication of W. F. Willoughboy’s principles of public administration (1927). Some other works also got published mainly by Follet, Fayol, Mooney and Reiley’s. This period reached its climax in 1937 when Gullick and Urwick’s papers on the science of Administration appeared. To summarise, 1927-1937 were the golden years of ‘principles’ in the history of public administration.

Evolution of Public Administration Stages

Evolution of Public Administration Stages

Evolution of Public Administration Stages

The third phase of the growth of the discipline of public administration began from late 1930s to late 1940s. In 1938 C.I. Bernard’s ‘The functions of the executive’ was published. Herbert Simon wrote an article entitled, ” The Proverbs of Administration” in 1946, and its argument was further developed in his Administrative Behaviour, which was published in 1947.

Simon developed a rationalistic theory of administration along with ‘bounded rationality’. The claim that public administration is a science was challenged by Robert Dahl in 1947. Public administration as a result of all this, found itself in a deflacted state, the status of the discipline become low. It was on this note that public administration entered the fourth phase in its history.

The fourth phase of the growth of (1948-1970) public administration as a discipline proved to be in crisis, searching for its identity. Many scholars responded to this crisis of identity by returning to the fold of the mother science, namely, political science. But, soon the process of de-emphasis of public administration in the larger discipline of political science got, if anything, accelerated in the 1960s. Here, thus public administrative was in search of alternative in the form of administrative science.

The fifth period 1970s to 1980s, despite the uncertainty and turmoil of the preceding period, public administration registered progress and entered the seventies with an enriched vision. Public Administration started attracting within its fold scholars from various disciplines and thus was becoming truly interdisciplinary in its nature. Public Administration has come closer to policy science and related areas and has been showing ample concern for issues in the field.

The sixth period starting from 1991, seeds of which had been sown in the preceding period. The public bureaucracy was viewed as the society’s favourite solution to the problems confronted. New Public Management and the civil society are the emerging new paradigms.

Evolution of Public Administration Stages

As an academic field, public administration’s evolution may thus be viewed as a succession of five over­lapping paradigms. Thus, the growth of public administration as a discipline owe to the American contribution, especially in the 20th century.

The scope and significance of the discipline of public administration has grown widely as a subject of study.

It the 21″ century growth of public administration especially in the first decade is widening, particularly in parliamentary democracies, where a healthy combination of politicians and administrators is most, urgently needed.

Modern view about public administration is that it is government in action. It is being increasingly realised that with the concept of welfare state becoming more and more popular, state is undertaking increasingly more and more responsibilities and this, tendency in turn has widened the scope of public administration especially in the developing countries.

Public administration has emerged as an institution of central importance in all countries in the world, and most impressively in the developing countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America.

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Evolution of Public Administration Stages

The governments of the developing countries have solemn obligation to bring about all round development of the people. They have assumed enormous responsibilities to improve the socio-economic conditions of the people. Their commitment to achieve higher levels of economic and social development has increased the scope of public administration in the coming decades of 21″ centuries.




Q.”Administrative efficiency is enhanced by keeping at a minimum the number of organizational levels through which a matter must pass before it is acted upon”. – (Herbert A. Simon)

Ans: Administrative structure of public or private space is based on hierarchy. The hierarchy is nothing but various levels of organization. In an org

Q.Whereas Downs model is largely dependent on a theory of psychological motivation, Niskanen’s model is framed by neo-classical thinking. In the light of the above, discuss the public choice approach to decision-making.

Ans. Public choice approach to the study of organizations focus on problems of control and responsiveness. Using economic tools of analysis, this bran

Q. In the evolution of’ the discipline of Public Administration, Minnowbrook Conferences 1,11 and III reflect the discipline’s re-conceptualisation and its changing values. Elucidate. (CSE, 2011)

Ans. There has long been a polemical discussion within the field of Public administration regarding the theoretical basis of the field. Some authors a

Q.”The field of pub adm is a field of business”. (Woodrow Wilson)

Ans: According to Woodrow Wilson, the affairs of public adm are similar to that of business. It implies that the primary concern of business, namely e

Q.In the last two decades, almost all countries of the world have experienced transformations in their ad-ministrative systems.’ Explain this phenomenon with examples from the developed and the developing nations in the context of New Public Management Movement.

Ans : In the world, during 1980’s and 1990’s remarkable changes took place in public sector management in almost all the countries. Structurally t

Q. Calling Woodrow Wilson, the father of Public Administration is doing injustice to equally or even more eminent contributions made prior to him.’ Comment.

Ans : Woodrow Wilson is known as the father of Public Administration. His seminal contribution, ‘The Study of Administration’ was published in the

Q. “Kautilya was not only the foremost politico-administrative thinker of ancient India but he was an advo¬cate and preacher of moral values too.” Comment.

Ans: The study of administration in India starts with the work of Kautilya. He finally blended the administrative studies with moral values. His work,

Q. “Public and Private administrations are two species of the same genus, but they also have special values and techniques of their own.” Comment.

The dichotomy between Public and Private administrations dates back to the starting of administrative studies. .The classical writers held the view th

Q. Democracy and good governance are contradictions in terms. Discuss with examples.

Ans: Democracy means popular government and it broadly takes two forms —parliamentary and presidential. These two forms refer to the differences in

Q. Give an account of major landmarks in the growth of the discipline of public administration in the 20th century. What are the possible trends in its growth in the first decade of 219’ century?

Evolution of Public Administration Stages Though Public administration as an activity has existed in human society from time immemorial, its emergence

Q.Describe the evolution of the discipline of public administration with special emphasis on post-1970 devel¬opments.

Evolution of Public Administration Ans: The discipline of public administration, despite the uncertainty and turmoil in the pre-1970s registered progr

Q.”… The paradigms of public administration may be understood in terms of locus on focus.” – (Golembiewski). In the light of the above statement describe the “five-paradigms” of Nicholas Henry about the evolution of the discipline of public administration.

Ans: According to Golembiewski, each phase may be distinguished and understood in terms of its locus or focus. ‘LOCUS’ refers directly to the ‘w

Q. “The inculcation of belief in the real existence of common purpose is an essential executive function.” Comment.

Ans: Organisation whether public or private is primarily concerned with co-ordination of all the resources through the process of, planning, organizin

Q.”If public administration is to play a major legitimizing role in governing our complex society, it needs to be more fully conceptualized”. Discuss.

Virtually every society today has been experiencing a transformation in its structure and functioning which is the result of collective working of man

Q.”Administrative question are not political questions”. Discuss.

Ans: The relationships between politics and public administration have evolved over a period of time. The American statesman right from the beginning

Q.The advent of the concept of “roll back of the state” since the 1980’s has been altering the role of Pub. Ad. but certainly not diminishing its central place in human society”. Discuss.

Ans: With the ever increasing complexity of Public Administration and its scope, it has become ‘very difficult for the governments to oversee the ad

Q” Though there are certain points of similarity between public and private administration yet no private organization can ever be exactly the same as a public one”. Examine.

Answer- The classical writers held the view that public and private administrations are the undifferentiated members of the genus administration. Henr

Minnowbrook conference in U.S.A. identified four features crucial to ‘new public administration’. Explain.

The Minnowbrook conference held in 1968 in U.S.A. was a youth conference and it was this young academic get together which gave rise to what has come

“Publicness” of Public Administration in an ideal democratic government remains the ultimate value in theory and practice.” Elucidate.    

Answer- Publicness in public administration can be understood from two prospectus. First perspective- what is the ultimate goal of public administrati

Q.”A science of administration would be a body of formal statements describing invariant relationships between measurable objects, units, or elements. Unquestionably administrative research has produced definite percepts and hypothesis that are applicable to concrete situations.” – (Fritz Morstein Marx)

1. “A science of administration would be a body of formal statements describing invariant relationships between measurable objects, units, or el

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