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Project-75I (India)

Project-75I (India)

Why in news?

  • The Defence Acquisition Council (DAC) has approved the issuance of a Request For Proposal (RFP) for the construction of six conventional submarines under Project-75I (India).
  • RFP is a project announcement posted publicly by an organization indicating that bids for contractors to complete the project are sought.

What is Project-75?

  • The Project 75I-class submarine is a follow-on of the Project 75 Kalvari-class submarine for the Indian Navy.
  • In the late 1990s, around the time of Kargil war, a three-decade plan took shape for indigenous construction of submarines.
  • It was known to have two separate series of submarine building lines – codenamed Project 75 and Project 75I — in collaboration with foreign entities.
  • Under this project, the Indian Navy intends to acquire six diesel-electric submarines, which will also feature advanced air-independent propulsion systems.
  • This is for enabling them to stay submerged for longer duration and substantially increase their operational range.

Project 75I

  • Project 75 (I) approved in 2007 is part of the Indian Navy’s 30 year Plan for indigenous submarine construction.
  • Offers a chance to stabilise the entire submarine line on an in-service platform, whether French, Russian or German.
  • P75I succeeded the P75 under which six diesel-electric attack submarines of the Kalvari class, based on the Scorpene class, were being built at MDL (Mazagon Dock Limited).
  • P-75 ‘I’ contract will be placed on one shortlisted firm.


  • To Protect Indo-Pacific: This is keeping in mind the rapid increase of nuclear submarine arsenal by People’s Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) (CHINA) and to protect the Indo-Pacific from future domination by the adversary.
  • One of the Largest ‘Make in India’ Projects: It will serve to facilitate faster and more significant absorption of technology and create a tiered industrial ecosystem for submarine construction in India.
  • To Ensure Self-Reliance: From a strategic perspective, this will help reduce current dependence on imports and gradually ensure greater self-reliance and dependability of supplies from indigenous sources.

Submarines Commissioned Till Date

  • The submarines in the current Kalvari-class take their names from erstwhile decommissioned classes of submarines named Kalvari.
  • It included Kalvari, Khanderi, Karanj and Vela class — which included Vela, Vagir, Vagsheer.
  • Two submarines of the ongoing project, Kalvari and Khanderi, have been commissioned into the Indian Navy.
  • The third submarine, Karanj, is in the last phase of rigorous sea trials.
  • The fourth Scorpene, Vela, has commenced her sea trials, whilst the sixth and last submarine, Vagsheer, is being readied for boot together.            Project-75I (India)

Classes Of Submarines

  • Sindhughosh-Class (Type 877EM)
    • India possesses nine Sindhughosh-class diesel-electric attack submarines. These Kilo-class units act as the mainstay of India’s submarine fleet and are being progressively retrofitted to accommodate the Klub/3M-54E Alfa cruise missile system. These submarines are 72.6 meters long with a 9.9-meter-wide beam and can travel up to 18 knots when submerged. They can remain submerged for about 45 days without surfacing. Their weapons systems are capable of firing torpedoes and anti-ship missiles.
  • Shishumar-Class (Type 209/1500)
    • India operates four Shishumar-class vessels designed by Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft (HDW) in Germany. While the first two vessels from the Shishumar-class were built at HDW, the third and fourth boats were constructed at the Mazagon Dock in Mumbai from packages supplied by HDW. These submarines are 65 meters long with an 8-meter-wide beam and can travel up to 22.5 knots when submerged. They can remain submerged for about 50 days without surfacing. Their weapons systems are capable of firing torpedoes. All four of the Shishumar-class vessels have undergone refits since they were commissioned.
  • Chakra-Class
    • INS Chakra II is a Russian Akula-class nuclear-powered attack submarine. It is operated by Indian Navy on a lease for 10 years. It was formally commissioned into service in India in April 2012 and is expected to be returned to Russia in 2022.      Project-75I (India)
  • Arihant-Class
    • India is expected to build between three to six nuclear powered ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs) under its ATV Program. The first vessel in this class, INS Arihant, was commissioned in 2014. It is powered by an 83MW pressurized light-water reactor (PWR) fueled with enriched uranium. The Arihant-class submarines are 110 meters long with an 11-meter-wide beam and can travel up to 24 knots when submerged. They can remain submerged for about 50 days without surfacing. Their weapons systems are capable of firing torpedoes and submarine-launched ballistic missiles. However, the next ships in the class, after INS Arihant are expected to be larger and more powerful in terms of both firepower and nuclear power.              Project-75I (India)
  • Kalvari-Class
    • India is expected to build six Kalvari-class diesel-electric attack submarines under its Project-75 program. The first vessel in this class was commissioned in 2017. The Kalvari class is based on the French Scorpène-class submarines. These submarines are 67.5 meters long with a 6.2-meter-wide beam and can travel up to 20 knots when submerged. They can remain submerged for about 50 days without surfacing. Their weapons systems are capable of firing torpedoes and anti-ship missiles.


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