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PRELIMS FACTS 23-05-2018

FACT # 1

MODEL AGRICULTURE PRODUCE AND LIVESTOCK CONTRACT FARMING AND SERVICES (PROMOTION & FACILITATION) ACT, 2018 

Why in news? The Union Agriculture Ministry has released Model Agriculture Produce and Livestock Contract Farming and Services (Promotion & Facilitation) Act, 2018
Model Agriculture Produce and Livestock Contract Farming and Services (Promotion & Facilitation) Act, 2018:

  • The Act lays special emphasis on protecting the interests of the farmers, considering them as weaker of the two parties entering into a contract.
  • In addition to contract farming, services contracts all along the value chain including pre-production, production and post-production have been included.
  • It is a promotional and facilitative Act and not regulatory in its structure

Features of the Act:

  • “Registering and Agreement Recording Committee” or an “Officer” for the purpose at district/block/ taluka level for online registration of sponsor and recording of agreement has been provided.
  • Contracted produce is to be covered under crop / livestock insurance in operation.
  • Contract framing to be outside the ambit of APMC Act.
  • No permanent structure can be developed on farmers’ land/premises
  • No right, title of interest of the land shall vest in the sponsor.
  • Farmer Producer Organization (FPOs) / Farmer Producer Companies (FPCs) to mobilize small and marginal farmers.
  • FPO/FPC can be a contracting party if so authorized by the farmers.
  • No rights, title ownership or possession to be transferred or alienated or vested in the contract farming sponsor etc.
  • Ensuring buying of entire pre-agreed quantity of one or more of agricultural produce, livestock or its product of contract farming producer as per contract.
  • Contract Farming Facilitation Group (CFFG) for promoting contract farming and services at village / panchayat at level provided.
  • Accessible and simple dispute settlement mechanism at the lowest level possible provided for quick disposal of disputes.

FACT # 2

ALIEN ASTEROID

Why in news? Scientists have discovered an asteroid named 2015 BZ509 in Jupiter’s orbit.

Alien asteroid 2015 BZ509:

  • Scientists have recently found an asteroid named 2015 BZ509 (affectionately known as BZ) which seems to have been here for 4.5 billion years.
  • This makes it the first known interstellar asteroid to have taken up residence orbiting the Sun.
  • It is not yet known where the object came from.
  • BZ seems to have reached the Solar System when it was forming, when the planets themselves were not exactly where they are now.
  • So it is difficult to figure out where it came from.
  • The Solar System is actually littered with small bodies.
  • BZ itself was discovered in a wide-sky survey of such bodies in 2015, but it took some time for its unusual behaviour to be understood.
  • BZ is in a retrograde orbit, moving around the Sun in the opposite direction to the eight planets, and the majority of other objects in the Solar System.
  • This immediately makes it stick out, as almost everything which formed from the disk of gas and debris around the Sun follows the direction of the star’s rotation.
  • If 2015 BZ509 were a native of our system, it should have had the same original direction as all of the other planets and asteroids, inherited from the cloud of gas and dust that formed them.
  • While this backwards habit doesn’t necessarily mean that a body has been captured into its current orbit, it is certainly a strong hint.
  • Scientists have concluded that the BZ might have been drawn in from another group of small bodies in the Solar System.
  • Asteroid immigration from other star systems occurs because the Sun initially formed in a tightly-packed star cluster, where every star had its own system of planets and asteroids.
  • The close proximity of the stars, aided by the gravitational forces of the planets, help these systems attract, remove and capture asteroids from one another.
  • BZ’s orbital longevity may be a result of its pattern which matches, or is in “resonance” with Jupiter’s.
  • One year in the asteroid’s life lasts as long as a year on Jupiter, even though they travel in opposite directions around the Sun.
  • Scientists are doing more research on the same.

FACT # 3

MAN BOOKER PRIZE 2018

Why in news? The winner of the man Booker prize has recently been announced for the year 2018.

Man Booker Prize:

  • The Man Booker Prize for Fiction(formerly known as the Booker–McConnell Prize and commonly known simply as the Booker Prize) is a literary prize awarded each year for the best original novel written in the English language and published in the UK.
  • The winner of the Man Booker Prize is generally assured international renown and success therefore, the prize is of great significance for the book trade.
  • From its inception, only novels written by Commonwealth, Irish, and South African (and later Zimbabwean) citizens were eligible to receive the prize.
  • But in 2014 this eligibility was widened to any English-language novel.
  • A high-profile literary award in British culture, the Booker Prize is greeted with great anticipation and fanfare.
  • It is also a mark of distinction for authors to be selected for inclusion in the shortlistor even to be nominated for the “longlist”.

 

Man Booker Prize 2018 winner:

  • Polish novelist Olga Tokarczuk has won the prestigious Man Booker International Prize for fiction this year.
  • She has won it for her book known as “Flights,” a novel that charts multiple journeys in time, space and human anatomy.
  • “Flights” beat five other finalists, including Iraqi writer Ahmed Saadawi’s horror story “Frankenstein in Baghdad” and South Korean author Han Kang’s meditative novel “The White Book.”
  • Tokarczuk’s novel combines tales of modern-day travel with the story of a 17th century anatomist who dissected his own amputated leg and the journey of composer Frederic Chopin’s heart from Paris to Warsaw after his death.

 

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