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PRELIMS FACTS 21-06-2018

FACT # 1

International Classification Of Diseases (ICD-11)

 

Why in news? The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently released its new International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11).

 

International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11):

  • The ICD is the foundation for identifying health trends and statistics worldwide which is released by WHO.
  • It contains around 55 000 unique codes for injuries, diseases and causes of death.
  • It provides a common language that allows health professionals to share health information across the globe.
  • ICD-11, for the first time, is completely electronic and has a much more user-friendly format.
  • ICD-11 is also able to better capture data regarding safety in healthcare such as unsafe workflows in hospitals can be identified and reduced.
  • The new ICD also includes new chapters, one on traditional medicine: although millions of people use traditional medicine worldwide, it has never been classified in this system.
  • Another new chapter on sexual health brings together conditions that were previously categorized in other ways (e.g. gender incongruence was listed under mental health conditions) or described differently.
  • Gaming disorder has been added to the section on addictive disorders.
  • A key principle in this revision was to simplify the coding structure and electronic tooling.
  • This will allow health care professionals to more easily and completely record conditions.
  • ICD-11 is linked to the WHO non-proprietary names of pharmaceutical products, and it can be used for cancer registration.
  • ICD-11 has been designed to be used in multiple languages: a central translation platform ensures that its features and outputs are available in all translated languages.
  • Transition tables from and to ICD-10 support migration to ICD-11.
  • The new ICD-11 also reflects progress in medicine and advances in scientific understanding.
  • For example, the codes relating to antimicrobial resistance are more closely in line with the Global Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (GLASS).
  • ICD-11 will be presented at the World Health Assembly in May 2019 for adoption by Member States, and will come into effect on 1 January 2022.
  • This release is an advance preview that will allow countries to plan how to use the new version, prepare translations, and train health professionals all over the country.
  • The ICD is also used by:
    • health insurers whose reimbursements depend on ICD coding
    • national health programme managers
    • data collection specialists
    • others who track progress in global health and determine the allocation of health resources

FACT # 2

Gaming Disorder

Why in news? Gaming disorder has been officially recognized by the world health organization.

Gaming Disorder:

  • The term has been granted validity by the WHO.
  • The World Health Organization has opted to include it in the latest edition of its Internal Classification of Diseases.
  • The volume diagnoses the newly minted disorder with three key telltale signs:
    • Impaired control over gaming (e.g. onset, frequency, intensity, duration, termination, context)
    • Increasing priority given to gaming to the extent that gaming takes precedence over other life interests and daily activities
    • Continuation or escalation of gaming despite the occurrence of negative consequences
  • Disorders due to addictive behaviours are recognizable and clinically significant syndromes associated with distress or interference with personal functions that develop as a result of repetitive rewarding behaviours other than the use of dependence-producing substances.
  • Disorders due to addictive behaviors include gambling disorder and gaming disorder, which may involve both online and offline behaviour.
  • But the prevalence of gaming disorder, as defined by the WHO, is actually “very low.”
  • As per WHO, millions of gamers around the world, even when it comes to the intense gaming, would never qualify as people suffering from gaming disorder.

 

FACT # 3

Devrais

Why in news? An NGO has come up with a unique initiative to comprehensively document these ‘green islands’ in a bid to conserve this rich and vital habitat in the Western Ghats – one of the 34 globally important biodiversity hotspots.

Devrais:

  • The word ‘Devrai’ is a compound of Dev meaning ‘God’ and ‘Rai’ meaning forest.
  • Devrai are the sacred groves which are often a rich source of rare fruits and plants.
  • A ‘sacred grove’ can range from a few trees to several hundred trees in a cluster.
  • These are scattered all over the country and are referred to by different names in different parts of India.
  • These occur in a variety of places: from scrub forests in the Thar Desert of Rajasthan maintained by the Bishnois, to rain forests in the Western Ghats of Kerala.
  • Himachal Pradesh in the north and Kerala in the south are specifically known for their large numbers of sacred groves.
  • The Kodavas of Karnataka alone maintained over 1000 sacred groves in their region.
  • It is estimated that around 1000 km² of unexploited land is inside sacred groves.
  • Historical references to sacred groves can be obtained from ancient classics as far back as Kalidasa’s Vikramuurvashiiya.
  • There has been a growing interest in creating green patches such as Nakshatravana.
  • Natural worship is an age old tribal belief based on the premise that all creations of nature have to be protected.
  • Such beliefs have preserved several virgin forests, in pristine form, called sacred groves.
  • Maharashtra has about 4,000 such groves, with 300 of these lying in Pune district scattered across verdant spots in Tamhini ghat.
  • Traditionally, a village was sited around a ‘sacred grove’ and its deity, providing worship and resource extraction to the residents.
  • Today, these graves stare in the face of ecological perils like habitat shrinkage, with rampant illegal tree felling in the ghat areas.
  • There is no legislation to preserve these once-remote green areas.
  • These groves function as a veritable nursery offering ideal opportunities for germplasm evaluation.
  • The clusters in Pune district are endowed with such rare plants as Narkya (Mappia foetida), economically important plants as wild nutmeg and black pepper, and wild edibles like wild litchi, etc.
  • These groves play a crucial role in regenerating the water table as they happen to be the source of a number of rivers, streams and rivulets in the district.
  • The Ghod River, which originates in the ‘sacred grove’ at Aahupe village in Bhimashankar is an example.

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