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PRELIMS FACTS 21-05-2018

FACT # 1

NIPAH VIRUS

Why in news? Kerala was put on high alert as Nipah Virus (NiV) infection was detected for the first time in the state. Nipah virus:

  • THE VIRUS:
    • Nipah virus (NiV) infection is a newly-emerging zoonosis (a disease which can be transmitted to humans from animals) that causes severe disease in both animals and humans.
    • The natural host of the virus are fruit bats of the Pteropodidae Family, Pteropus genus.
  • TRANSMISSION:
    • The viruses jump the species barrier and infect a secondary animal host.
    • The transmission takes place through direct contact with infected bats, pigs, or from other NiV-infected people.
    • People have been also cautioned that they should not consume fruits that have fallen on to the ground.
  • SYMPTOMS:
    • NiV infection in humans has a range of clinical presentations, from asymptomatic infection to acute respiratory syndrome and fatal encephalitis.
    • NiV is also capable of causing disease in pigs and other domestic animals.
    • Nipah virus primarily causes an encephalitic syndrome with a high mortality rate.
    • The characteristic MRI abnormalities are multiple, small (less than 5 mm), asymmetric focal lesions in the subcortical and deep white matter without surrounding edema.
  • TREATMENT:
    • There is no vaccine for either humans or animals.
    • The primary treatment for human cases is intensive supportive care
  • PRECAUTIONS:
    • Nipah virus infection can be prevented by avoiding exposure to sick pigs and bats in endemic areas.
    • It is advisable to not drink raw date palm sap and not consume fruits that have fallen from trees.

FACT # 2

AFRASIA BANK GLOBAL WEALTH MIGRATION REVIEW 2018

 

Why in news? India has been declared the 6th wealthiest country in the world by this report.

AfrAsia Bank Global Wealth Migration Review 2018:

  • “Total wealth” refers to the private wealth held by all the individuals living in each country.
  • It includes all their assets (property, cash, equities, business interests) less any liabilities.
  • This excludes the government funds.
  • Larger countries have an advantage due to higher populations.
  • India is the sixth wealthiest country in the world with a total wealth of $8,230 billion.
  • The US is the wealthiest country in the world with a total wealth of $62,584 billion.
  • It is followed by China ($24,803 billion) at the second place and Japan ($19,522 billion) at the third place.
  • Other countries in the top 10 wealthiest list includes:
    • the UK $(9,919 billion)
    • Germany ($9,660 billion)
    • India ($8,230 billion)
    • Australia ($6,142 billion)
    • Canada ($6,393 billion)
    • France ($6,649 billion)
    • Italy ($4,276 billion)
  • Factors that help in wealth creation in India include:
    • large number of entrepreneurs
    • good educational system
    • robust outlook for IT
    • business process outsourcing
    • real estate
    • healthcare
    • media sector
  • These factors in future will result in a 200 per cent rise 10 year wealth growth forecast.
  • Globally, the total private wealth held worldwide amounts to around $215 trillion.
  • There are around 15.2 million HNWIs in the world, each with net assets of $1 million or more.
  • There are about 584,000 multi-millionaires in the world, each with net assets of $10 million or more.
  • There are 2,252 billionaires in the world, each with net assets of $1 billion or more.

FACT # 3

PROJECT ASITA

 

Why in news? Government has called for the speedy implementation of the Yamuna Riverfront Development project to make the river accessible to the people of Delhi.

Project Asita:

  • The project Asita, which is another name of the Yamuna river, aims to restore, revive and rejuvenate its flood plains and make them accessible to the people of Delhi.
  • ‘Riverfront walks’ is a major component of the project.
  • It will enable people to develop a relationship with the Yamuna.
  • A special focus of the project is on reviving the river’s bio-diversity in the national capital.
  • The project envisages creating a green buffer area of approximately 300 metres wide, along the river edge with species of riverine ecology.
  • A wide belt of 150 metres, along the peripheral roads, will be developed as greenways for public amenities.
  • It will also include a continuous trail of pathways and cycle tracks.
  • To revive the ecosystem of the flood plains, wetlands will be created to store the flood waters and also to improve groundwater recharge.
  • This will eventually result in flourishing of bio-diversity in the flood plains.
  • An environmentally conscious approach for integration of the river into the urban fabric of the city will be adopted.
  • A people-friendly bio-diversity zone will be created, for people to interact freely with the river’s ecosystem.

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