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PRELIMS FACTS 19-05-2018

FACT # 1


Why in news? The Union Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) has set up a central oversight body (COB) recently.

Central oversight body (COB):

  • Central oversight body (COB) has been set up under the Union Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA).
  • It is made to ensure use of videography at crime scenes and video-recording of statements of witnesses in an effort to prevent botch-up at the crime scene and hostile witnesses, particularly in high-profile cases.
  • The COB will be headed by Rina Mitra, Special Secretary (Internal Security) at MHA.
  • Tampering of evidence at the crime scene in cases such as Jessica Lall murder, Aarushi-Hemraj double murder and the recent murder of a boy from Gurgaon’s Ryan International School, among others, resulted in either acquittal or framing of innocent people.
  • States will introduce digital cameras and establish secured portals, and investigation officers can email photographs taken at the crime scene to these portals.
  • To give authenticity and prevent manipulation, digital images can be retained on state’s server as permanent record.
  • The state server can re-mail the digital files back to the police station for further use.
  • Smartphones will be used until this is done.
  • The MHA has also suggested that the states set up an oversight mechanism, an independent committee to study CCTV footage installed to check human rights abuse at police stations.

FACT # 2



Why in news? Parcel Cargo Express Train (PCET) begins operation, connecting northeast to the West Coast

Parcel Cargo Express Train (PCET):

  • Northeast Frontier Railway has started operating one lease Parcel Cargo Express Train (PCET) on fortnightly basis.
  • It connects Northeastern part of the country to the West Coast.
  • The route of this Parcel Cargo Express Train lease is : New Guwahati in Assam to Kalyan in Maharashtra with stoppages at New Jalpaiguri, Kalumna Goods Shed.
  • This move would enable farmers to market their products like tea, betal nuts, pineapple, jute, horticulture products, cane furniture etc. at the retail markets in Mumbai, Bengaluru, Nagpur, Pune etc.
  • This initiative will not only promote industries of the region particularly but will also provide sustainable job opportunity to the local youths including unskilled labour.
  • Parcel Cargo Express Train has emerged as a business tool and this has been done without any additional strain on the resources of the railways.
  • These leased PCETs will also generate substantial revenue to the Indian Railways in their contractual periods of 6 years each.
  • The Unit transportation cost through PCET will be relatively less than the cost of road transportation.
  • So, the transporters as well as ultimate consumers will be benefited on account of less transportation cost.
  • A single PCET can carry consignment equivalent to 52 nos. of trucks.
  • This will ensure less Carbon Emission which will contribute for Green India & saving of foreign exchange on account of purchasing of fuel.
  • Several other zonal Railways have also taken initiatives to lease out Parcel Cargo Express Train (PCETs) on round trip.

FACT # 3


Why in news? Pakal Dul hydro power project to provide 12 pc free power to Jammu & Kashmir.

Pakul dum dam:

  • The Pakal Dul Dam is a proposed concrete-face rock-fill dam on the Marusadar River, a tributary of the Chenab River, in Kishtwar district of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.
  • The primary purpose of the dam is hydroelectric power generation.
  • It will divert water to the south through a 10 km (6.2 mi) long headrace tunnel and into power station on the reservoir of the Dul Hasti Dam, on the Chenab.
  • In February 2014, the project was awarded to a consortium of domestic and foreign countries.
  • It includes Patel Engineering, Bharat Heavy Electricals and Turkey’s Limak Holding.
  • Pakistan, who relies on the Chenab downstream, views the dam as a violation of the Indus Water Treaty, whereas India states it is as per Treaty Provisions.
  • The 1,000 megawatt Pakal Dul hydroelectric power project will be completed in 66 months.
  • It will provide 12 per cent free power to the state.
  • It will not only be the largest hydroelectric power project in the state but also the first storage unit.
  • The project is expected to generate employment for 3,000 persons during construction phase and to 500 persons during operation stage.
  • The government of J&K shall be getting 12 per cent free power after 10 years of commissioning of the project and water usage charges as applicable.
  • Additional 1 per cent free power will go towards Local Area Development Fund (LADF).
  • Also, the state will have first right to purchase balance power.
  • Also, the 330 megawatt Kishanganga hydroelectric power project in Jammu and Kashmir will provide 13 per cent free power to the state besides creating employment opportunity.
  • The project on the river Kishanganga, a tributary of Jhelum, is estimated to generate 1,712.95 million units of



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