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PRELIMS FACTS 18-06-2018

FACT # 1

Foreign Portfolio Investors 


Why in news? The Reserve Bank has eased investment norms for foreign portfolio investors (FPIs) in debt.


Foreign portfolio investors:

  • Foreign Portfolio Investment (FPI) is investment by non-residents in Indian securities including:
    • Shares
    • government bonds
    • corporate bonds
    • convertible securities
    • infrastructure securities etc.
  • The class of investors who make investment in these securities are known as Foreign Portfolio Investors.
  • FPI is induced by differences in equity price scenario, bond yield, growth prospects, interest rate, dividends or rate of return on capital in India’s financial assets.
  • Any equity investment by non-residents which is less than or equal to 10% of capital in a company is portfolio investment.
  • While above this the investment will be counted as Foreign Direct Investment (FDI).
  • Foreign Portfolio Investors includes investment groups of:
    • Foreign Institutional Investors (FIIs)
    • Qualified Foreign Investors (QFIs)
    • subaccounts etc.
  • NRIs doesn’t comes under FPI.

New Norms by RBI for FPIs:

  • FPIs are allowed to invest in various debt market instruments such as government bonds, treasury bills, state development loans and corporate bonds, but with certain limits and restrictions.
  • The RBI increased the FPIs cap on investment in government securities to 30% of the outstanding stock of that security, from the 20% earlier.
  • FPIs are permitted to invest in government securities (G-secs), including treasury bills and SDLs without any minimum residual maturity requirement.
  • But it is subject to the condition that short-term investments by an FPI under either category shall not exceed 20% of the total investment of that FPI in that category.
  • Short-term investments are defined as those with residual maturity of up to one year.

FACT # 2

The Hornbills And Nest Adoption Programme


Why in news? The nest adoption programmes are saving hornbill habitats in Arunachal Pradesh.

The Hornbills and nest adoption programme:

  • The hornbills are a familyof bird found in tropical and subtropical Africa, Asia and Melanesia.
  • They are characterized by a long, down-curved bill which is frequently brightly colored and sometimes has a casque on the upper mandible.
  • The family is omnivorous, feeding on fruit and small animals.
  • They are monogamous breeders nesting in natural cavities in trees and sometimes cliffs.
  • A number of species of hornbill are threatenedwith extinction, mostly insular species with small ranges.
  • The Indian subcontinenthas 10 species of hornbills, of which 9 are found in India and adjoining countries.
  • The Sri Lanka grey hornbillis restricted to the island.
  • The most common widespread species in the Indian subcontinent is the Indian grey hornbill.
  • Pakke Tiger Reserve (PTR) in Arunachal Pradesh harbours four species of hornbills:
    • Great Hornbill (Buceros bicornis)
    • Wreathed Hornbill (Rhyticeros undulates)
    • Rufous-necked Hornbill (Aceros nipalensis)
    • Oriental Pied Hornbill Anthracoceros albirostris)
  • In 2012, a ‘Hornbill Nest Adoption Program’ was initiated in a three-way partnership between the Ghora-Aabhe Society (council of Nyishi village headmen), the Arunachal Pradesh Forest Department and the Nature Conservation Foundation.
  • The main concept is shared parenting: biological parents (hornbills) look after their chicks, local guardians (Nyishi villagers, who were hunters previously) protect the nests and urban citizens provide financial support.
  • The main objectives of this programme are to:
    • ensure monitoring and protection of hornbill nests in the Reserved Forest (RF) area
    • involve the local community in the protection effort
    • obtain ecological data on hornbill nesting patterns and breeding success
    • understand and address challenges in community-based conservation efforts outside Protected Areas

FACT # 3

Assumption Island


Why in news? The Seychelles President Danny Faure cahas cancelled the agreement with India for the development of Assumption Island in the Indian Ocean.


Assumption Island:

  • Assumption Island is a small island in the Outer Islandsof Seychelles north of Madagascar, on Mahé
  • The Island is located about 27 km south of Anse Takamaka on Aldabra Atolland is part of the Aldabra Group.
  • It is a single coral island which measures 11.6 km2 (4.5 sq mi) in area.
  • Assumption Island has a small village with about 20 people on the sheltered western side surrounded by Casuarina
  • An abandoned coconutpalm plantation is just south of it.
  • The island has a construction camp with about 50 people at the southern point of the airfield.
  • All labor are from India.
  • The inhabitants on the island are engaged in very small scale farming and fishing which are mainly for the island consumption, and also work at the coast guard station near the village.
  • In 2018, Seychellesand India signed an agreement to build and operate a joint military facility on a portion of the island.



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