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PRELIMS FACTS 11-06-2018

FACT # 1

Qingdao Declaration

Why in news? SCO summit adopts declaration calling for 3-year plan to combat terrorism.

Qingdao declaration:

  • Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) leaders taking part in a summit in China’s Qingdao have singed the Qingdao Declaration.
  • The signing ceremony involved the leaders of China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, India and Pakistan.
  • The declaration calls for implementing the three-year plan to combat terrorism, separatism and extremism.
  • It also calls for implementation of the treaty on long-term good neighbourliness, friendship and co-operation.
  • The leaders adopted a total of 17 documents at the summit, which include:
    • documents endorsing the 2018-2022 Action Plan to implement the Treaty for Long-term Good-Neighborly Relations, Friendship and Cooperation between the SCO states
    • 2019-2020 Program for Cooperation in countering terrorism, separatism and extremism
    • decision to approve the 2018-2023 Anti-Drug Strategy and an Action Plan to implement it.
    • an information statement
  • India refused to endorse China’s ambitious One Belt, One Road (OBOR) project as part of Qingdao Declaration at the 18th SCO summit.
  • At the restricted session of the SCO Summit, Indian Prime Minister Modi floated concept of SECURE: ‘S’ for security for citizens, ‘E’ for economic development, ‘C’ for connectivity in the region, ‘U’ for unity, ‘R’ for respect of sovereignty and integrity, and ‘E for environment protection.


  • The Declaration on the Establishment of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization was singed in China’s Shanghai in June 2001 by six founding states – Russia, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.
  • India and Pakistan were granted SCO membership on June 9, 2017.
  • Afghanistan, Belarus, Iran and Mongolia currently enjoy observer status, while Sri Lanka, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Cambodia and Nepal are dialogue partners.
  • The Shanghai Spiritis the main principle and founding values of the SCO, defining that all member states are equal and committed to forging good neighbourliness and sincere partnership with each other.
  • It features mutual trust, mutual benefit, equality, consultation, respect for cultural diversity and pursuit of common development.
  • All decisions of the SCO are made through discussions and dialogues.
  • On June 10, 2018, the 18th SCO Summit urged implementation of Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action on the Iranian nuclear programmethrough joint statement was issued at the end of 18th Meeting of the Council of Heads of Member States of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization.
  • Deeper cooperation in numerous areas was also emphasized by members of the organisation.

FACT # 2

Malabar Exercise 2018


Why in news? The 22nd edition of the Exercise Malabar was recently held in Guam in the Philippine Sea.

Malabar Exercise:

  • Exercise Malabaris a trilateral naval exercise involving the United States, Japan and India as permanent partners.
  • Originally begun in 1992 as a bilateral exercise between India and the United States, Japan became a permanent partner in 2015.
  • Past non-permanent participants are Australia and Singapore.
  • The annual Malabar series began in 1992 and includes diverse activities, ranging from fighter combat operations from aircraft carriers through Maritime Interdiction Operations

Malabar Exercise 2018: 

  • The 2018 Malabar exercise was conducted from 7 to 16 June 2018 off the coast of Guamin the Phillipine Sea.
  • This was the 22nd edition of the exercise and the first time to be held in United States territory.
  • The exercise focused on onshore and at-sea training, aircraft carrier operations, maritime patrol and reconnaissance operations, visit, board, search and seizure operations and professional exchanges.
  • Based on news reports, India refused Australia participation in the exercise to avoid posturing it as a military group against China.
  • India is being represented by the stealth frigate INS Sahyadri, stealth corvettes INS Kamorta, and the Deepak-class fleet tanker INS Shakti.
  • Along with these, P-8I Neptune advanced maritime patrol/anti-submarine warfare aircraft will also participate in the wargame.
  • INS Sahyadri:
    • INS Sahyadri is Shivalik-class advanced, stealth-minded, multi-role frigate.
    • INS Sahyadri was commissioned in July 2012 and was built at the Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL) in Mumbai.
    • It is 468 feet in length and 55 feet in breadth and has a displacement capacity of 6,800 tons.
    • It can also be equipped with BrahMos anti-ship missiles, Anti-submarine rocket launchers, Barak-1 missiles as well as Shtil-1 3S90M missile.
  • INS Kamorta:
    • INS Kamorta is the first of the four anti-submarine Kamorta class stealth corvettes.
    • A Corvette is generally a small ship, usually weighing somewhere between 500 tons and 2,000 tons.
    • INS Kamorta is India’s first indigenous anti-submarine corvette as well as the country’s first indigenous-built stealth corvette.
    • The vessel, which has been named after Kamorta islands located in Andaman and Nicobar, was commissioned in August 2014.
    • INS Kamorta has the length of 358 ft overall, with a beam of 45 ft.
    • The vessel is fitted with foldable hangar door which has been fitted with the rail-less helicopter traversing system, thus giving a boost to the helicopter operations from corvette deck.
  • INS Shakti: 
    • Considered as one of the largest ships of Indian Navy, INS Shakti is a Deepak-class fleet tanker that was commissioned on October 2011.
    • The construction of the ship was done by Fincantieri, which is an Italian shipbuilding company based in Trieste.
    • The fleet tanker is equipped to refuel four ships at a time, and has a refuelling speed of 1,500 tonnes per hour.
    • Compared to that, her predecessors had the refuelling speed of 300 per hour.
    • A fleet tanker is a naval auxiliary ship that allows for underway replenishment on the high seas.

FACT # 3



Why in news?  Ghumot is on the verge of being declared a state heritage instrument.


  • The Ghumot or Gummeta, is a percussion instrument that is popular in Goa and Andhra Pradesh.
  • It is also played in some villages of Karnataka.
  • Also known as Ghumat, Dakki or Budike, it comes in different sizes.
  • The smaller one is generally used as the main accompaniment to the ‘Burrakatha’ a folk, story telling tradition of Andhra Pradesh.
  • The bigger sized drum is performed at religious celebrations in Goa by certain communities.
  • The Ghumot is part of religious and folk music of both Hindus and Christians in Goa.
  • It is an essential instrument for the Ganesh festival, during arti and in Suvari Vadan orchestra that performs at Goan temples during spring.
  • Ghumot is part of the Mando, a musical form of the Goan Catholics that combines elements of both Indian and Western music.
  • It is also part of the Zagor folk dance and Dulpod.
  • Ghumot belongs to the membranophone category, which is an earthen vessel.
  • The instrument has two openings.
  • The smaller one at the rear end controls the sound when it is opened and closed alternately by the left hand, while the right hand plays rhythmic patterns.
  • The bigger opening at the head of the instrument, which was once covered with a monitor lizard skin, has now been replaced by a goat’s skin.
  • Hung around the neck, the Ghumot is played with both hands, while sitting or standing.
  • According to historians, this is an ancient instrument, with a history that is over 1,000 years.


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