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PRELIMS FACTS 09-07-2018

FACT # 1

Civil Aviation Research Organisation

 

Why in news? State-run Airports Authority of India (AAI) is about to set up a Civil Aviation Research Organisation (CARO) at Hyderabad.

 

Civil Aviation Research Organisation:

  • Civil Aviation Research Organisation (CARO) will be aimed at “finding indigenous solutions” to meet the challenges posed by the growing air traffic.
  • According to AAI, CARO will be set up at Begumpet Airport,
  • It will be spread across a prawling area of 27 acres.
  • It will cater to ANS (Air Navigation Services) and airport or engineering research.

 

Airports Authority of India:

  • The Government of India constituted the International Airports Authority of India (IAAI) in 1972 to manage the nation’s international airports while the National Airports Authority (NAA) was constituted in 1986 to look after domestic airports.
  • The organisations were merged in April 1995 by an Act of Parliament, namely, the Airports Authority of India Act, 1994 and has been constituted as a Statutory Body and was named as Airports Authority of India (AAI).
  • This new organisation was to be responsible for creating, upgrading, maintaining and managing civil aviation infrastructure both on the ground and air space in the country.
  • AAI worksunder the Ministry of Civil Aviation and is responsible for creating, upgrading, maintaining and managing civil aviation infrastructure in India.
  • It provides Air traffic management (ATM) services over Indian airspace and adjoining oceanic areas.
  • It also manages a total of 125 Airports, including 18 International Airports, 7 Customs Airports, 78 Domestic Airports and 26 Civil enclaves at Military Airfields.
  • AAI is implementing the GAGAN project in technological collaboration with the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), where the satellite based system will be used for navigation.

FACT # 2

Parker Solar Probe

 

Why in news? NASA is planning to send its first robotic spacecraft “Parker Solar Probe” to the Sun.

 

Parker Solar Probe:

  • Parker Solar Probe is a planned NASA robotic spacecraft to probe the outer corona of the Sun.
  • It will approach to within 8.86 solar radii (6.2 million kilometers) from the “surface” (photosphere) of the Sun.
  • Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory designed and built the spacecraft, which will launch in the summer of 2018.
  • This was the first time a NASA spacecraft was named after a living person, honoring physicist Eugene Parker.
  • The Parker Solar Probewill be the first spacecraft to fly into the low solar corona.
  • The Parker Solar Probemission design uses repeated gravity assists at Venus to incrementally decrease its orbital perihelion to achieve multiple passes of the Sun at approximately 8.5 solar radii, or about 6 million km.
  • The goals of the mission are: 
    • Determine the structure and dynamics of the magnetic fields at the sources of solar wind.
    • Trace the flow of energy that heats the corona and accelerates the solar wind.
    • Determine what mechanisms accelerate and transport energetic particles.
    • Explore dusty plasma near the Sun and its influence on solar wind and solar energetic particles formation.

FACT # 3

Mudumalai Tiger Reserve

 

Why in news? Area around Mudumalai is soon to be declared as an eco-sensitive zone.

 

Mudumalai Tiger Reserve:

  • The reserve is a critical part of the Nilgiris Biosphere Reserve spread over 5,500 sq. km.
  • The area supports an ecologically sustainable habitat in the Western Ghats landscape for about 60-65 tigers, 600 to 800 Asian elephants and gaur apart from other animals of significance.
  • This reserve harbours 227 species of birds, 50 species of fish, 21 species of amphibians, 34 species of reptiles.
  • The reserve, comprising the wildlife sanctuary and the national park, extending over an area of 321 sq. km, was declared a core/critical tiger habitat in 2007.
  • Besides the core/critical tiger habitat, 367 sq. km. is the buffer area in a total of 688 sq. km. reserve area.
  • The Union Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change has issued a draft notification declaring 438 sq. km. of area around the reserve as an eco-sensitive zone (ESZ).

Eco-sensitive zones:

  • Once the eco-sensitive zone is declared around the reserve the following would be prohibited in the area:
    • commercial mining
    • setting up of industries causing pollution
    • establishment of major hydroelectric projects
    • use or production or processing of any hazardous substances
    • discharge of untreated effluents into natural water bodies or land area
    • setting up of new saw mills or brick kilns
  • Agriculture activities in the area would not be stopped.
  • Also, resorts already present in the area would not be forced to stop functioning.

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