Why in news? Sydney-based think tank Institute for Economics and Peace (IEP) has released the data for Global Peace Indices for the year 2018.
2018 Global Peace Index:
India has moved up four places to the 137th rank among 163 countries on the 2018 Global Peace Index.
It is due to a reduction in the level of violent crime driven by increased law enforcement.
But unrest in Kashmir raised tensions between India and Pakistan, with the number of deaths from external conflict increasing in both countries.
India was also among the countries with the biggest decreases in the number of deaths, along with Sri Lanka, Chad, Colombia, and Uganda.
The index is topped by (Ranking wise):
The last five countries are (Ranking wise):
The results of the 2018 Global Peace Index (GPI) show that the global level of peace has deteriorated by 0.27 per cent in the last year, marking the fourth successive year of deteriorations.
Ninety-two countries deteriorated, while 71 countries improved.
Underlying the fall in peacefulness, six of the nine regions in the world deteriorated in the last year.
The four most peaceful regions – Europe, North America, Asia-Pacific, and South America, all recorded deteriorations.
The largest overall deterioration occurred in South America due to increases in the incarceration rate and impact of terrorism.
FACT # 2
Why in news? Declaration has recently been revised by the Government of India relating to Article II and III of the Appendix to the Paris Act (1971).
Declaration has recently been revised by the Government of India relating to Article II and III of the Appendix to the Paris Act (1971).
India has been the Member of Berne Convention since 28th April, 1928.
It has been submitting the declaration as per Article II & III of the Appendix from time to time.
The Article II of the Appendix would enable the Republic of India to substitute for the exclusive right of translation of a work, which has been published in printed or analogous forms of reproduction, granted by the competent authority, only for the purpose of teaching, scholarship or research.
The Article III of the Appendix would enable the Republic of India to Substitute for the exclusive right of reproduction of a work, which has been published either in printed or analogous forms of reproduction, or in audio-visual form of lawfully made audio-visual fixations, to publish an edition which has not been distributed / on sale for a period of six months, except when either the translations is not published by the owner of the right of translation or with his authorization, or when the translation is not in a language general in use in India.
The Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works is an international agreementgoverning copyright.
It was first accepted in Berne, Switzerland, in 1886.
The Berne Convention formally mandated several aspects of modern copyright law.
It introduced the concept that a copyright exists the moment a work is “fixed”, rather than requiring registration.
It also enforces a requirement that countries recognize copyrights held by the citizens of all other parties to the convention.
The Berne Convention requires its parties to treat the copyright of works of authors from other parties to the convention (known as members of the Berne Union) at least as well as those of its own nationals.
For example, French copyright law applies to anything published or performed in France, regardless of where it was originally created.
In addition to establishing a system of equal treatment that harmonised copyright amongst parties, the agreement also required member states to provide strong minimum standards for copyright law.
Copyright under the Berne Convention must be automatic and it is prohibited to require formal registration.
FACT # 3
U.N. Security Council
Why in news? U.N. Security Council has recently elected five members for 2-year term.
U.N. Security Council recent elections:
The UN General Assembly has elected the following as non-permanent members of the powerful Security Council for a two-year term beginning January 1, 2019.
Voting was held in the 193-member General Assembly to fill the seats that will be vacated by the following this year.
The five non-permanent members were elected according to the following pattern:
two seats for the Group of African states and the Group of Asia-Pacific states
one for the Group of Latin American and Caribbean states
two seats for Western European and other states
U.N. Security Council:
The Security Council has 15 members, including five permanent ones.
The five permanent members, each with the power of veto, are:
The 10 non-permanent members are elected for two-year terms each.
The most powerful UN organ, the Security Council is responsible for determining the existence of a threat against peace and to respond to an act of aggression.
It is also responsible for finding peaceful means to settle a conflict or a dispute between states.
In some cases, the Council can resort to sanctions or even authorise the use of force to maintain or restore international peace and security.
The Security Council also recommends to the General Assembly the appointment of the UN Secretary General and the admission of new members to the UN.