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PRELIMS FACTS 09-05-2018

FACT # 1

INDIAN PHARMACOPEIA

Why in news?

  • The Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission has approved modern, animal-free tests for drug manufacturers.

INDIAN PHARMACOPEIA:

  • Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission (IPC)is an Autonomous Institution of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Govt. of India.
  • IPC is created to set standards of drugs in the country.
  • Its basic function is to update regularly the standards of drugs commonly required for treatment of diseases prevailing in this region.
  • It publishes official documents for improving Quality of Medicines by way of adding new and updating existing monographs in the form of Indian Pharmacopoeia (IP) which has been modelled over and historically follows from the British Pharmacopoeia.
  • It further promotes rational use of generic medicines by publishing National Formulary of India.
  • IP prescribes standards for identity, purity and strength of drugs essentially required from health care perspective of human beings and animals.
  • IP contains a collection of authoritative procedures of analysis and specifications for Drugs.
  • The IP, or any part of it, has got legal status under the Second Schedule of the Drugs & Cosmetics Act, 1940 and Rules 1945 there under.

FACT # 2

TRAI

Why in news?

  • Telecom regulator TRAI has issued a draft to amend interconnect regulations, proposing changes in terms and conditions for operators to seek fresh call connect ports from other telcos.

TRAI:

  • The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) is a statutory bodyset up by the Government of India under section 3 of the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India Act, 1997.
  • It is the regulatorof the telecommunications sector in India.
  • It consists of a Chairperson and not more than two full-time members and not more than two part-time members.
  • One of its main objectives is to provide a fair and transparent environment that promotes a level playing field and facilitates fair competition in the market.
  • TRAI regularly issues orders and directions on various subjects such as tariffs, interconnections, quality of service, Direct To Home(DTH) services and mobile number portability.

FACT # 3

CONTEMPT OF COURT

Why in news?

  • The Supreme Court has blamed the Centre for showing sheer contempt of court by not framing the Cauvery draft scheme.

CONTEMPT OF COURT:

  • Contempt of court is often also referred to as “contempt”.
  • It is the offence of being disobedient towards a court of law and its authorities in the form of behaviour that opposes or defies the dignity of the court.
  • It manifests itself in wilful disregard of the authority of a court of law.
  • There are broadly two categories of contempt:
    • being rude to legal authorities in the courtroom
    • willfully failing to obey a court order
  • When a court decides that an action constitutes contempt, it issues an order called “found” or “held” in contempt which declares a person or organisation is found to have disobeyed the court.
  • This is likely to jeopardise a fair trial.
  • Besides, those found guilty of contempt of court may have to pay a fine or even go to jail.

In India contempt of court is of two types:

  • Civil contempt:
    • Under Section 2(b) of the Contempt of Courts Act of 1971, civil contempt has been defined as wilful disobedience to any judgment, decree, direction, order, writ or other process of a court or wilful breach of an undertaking given to a court.
  • Criminal contempt:
    • Under Section 2(c) of the Contempt of Courts Act of 1971, criminal contempt has been defined as the publication (whether by words, spoken or written, or by signs, or by visible representation, or otherwise) of any matter or the doing of any other act whatsoever which:
      • Scandalises or tends to scandalise, or lowers or tends to lower the authority of, any court, or
      • Prejudices, or interferes or tends to interfere with the due course of any judicial proceeding, or
      • Interferes or tends to interfere with, or obstructs or tends to obstruct, the administration of justice in any other manner.

·        Punishment

  • 6 (six) months, or fine up to ₹2000 or both.

 

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