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Population Density in India.

POPULATION DENSITY IN INDIA

“Demo” literally means people and “transition” literally means change. Thus, theory of demographic transition explains the change in population structure. According to the theory, population density in India is in three stages in demographic transition of any society  by population density in India.

Stage I: High Death Rate and High Birth Rate

In this stage, both the death rate and the birth rate are high. Therefore, there is no increase in population. Moreover, the proportion of children is high in the total population density in India.

  According to population density in India Why death rate is high?

Death rate is high due to the lack of medical facilities, low food availability, and low education levels in the society as mentioned in population density in India.

According to population density in India Why birth rate is high?

The birth rate is also high on account of poverty and low status of women besides other factors. The poor consider children an asset because children are made to do work right from their childhood. Moreover, as the chances of survival of children are less, people prefer more children. The low status of women leads to early marriages, lack of say in reproductive decisions, and low participation of women in economic activities which further facilitates repeated pregnancies.

Geographical prevalence of Stage I in population density in india

Stage I is usually prevalent in underdeveloped regions. India crossed Stage I in 1921. At present, some nations in Africa are experiencing Stage I of demographic transition.

Stage II: Low Death Rate and High  Birth Rate

In this stage, the death rate is low and the birth rate is high. Thus, there is significant increase in population. Moreover, the proportion of youth and children is high in the total population density in India.

According to population density in India Why death rate is low?

Death rate is low on account of improvement in medical facilities and increase in food availability (on account of improvements in agriculture).

According to population density in India Why birth rate is high? 

Birth rate is still high because people follow large family norms, lack education, and status of women is also low.

Birth rate has the tendency to follow death rate. However, death rate reduces mainly on account of physical facilities (such as food and medicine), whereas birth rate reduces on account of social changes such as change in the status of women and preference for small families. Social changes take place after a longer time period. Usually, there is a generation gap between fall in death rate and fall in birth rate.

Geographical prevalence of Stage II

Stage II is usually prevalent in developing nations. India is passing through Stage II. Rather, India is in the later phase of Stage II. China is believed to have entered Stage III. Stage II is prevalent in most of the Asian and South American nations. These nations are in a position to reap demographic dividend.

Demographic Dividend in population density in India.

Demographic dividend refers to a higher ratio of working population in comparison to dependent population in the population structure of the country. The higher ratio of working population facilitates economic growth of the country.

Working population generates output and adds to economic growth. On the other hand, the dependent population such as children and old population do not contribute to economic output.

At present, the ratio of dependent population to working population (also called dependency ratio) is 0.66.

The dependency ratio is equal to

Dependent population       Population (0-14) and (60 and above)       30.76 + 8.94

=                                                                 =                         = 0.66

Working population             Working population (15-59)                              60.3

Age group Percentage (%)
(Census 2011)
0-14 30.76
15-59 60.3
60 and above 8.94
Total 100.00

 

Dependency Ratio in India
1991 2001 2011
0.79 0.75 0.66

The dependency ratio is expected to reduce in the coming years. To harness demographic dividend, certain prerequisites are required to be attained:

  • Health of workers by population density in India: Workforce with poor health standards cannot effectively contribute to economic growth.
  • Vocational skills by  population density : A workforce with low vocational skills contributes to economic growth at a lower level of productivity
  • Availability of employment opportunities: In the absence of employment opportunities, workforce would remain unemployed.

It is even said that demographic dividend may turn to demographic terrorism on account of lack of employment opportunities and low sex ratio in India. Male workforce without jobs and wives may indulge into illegal activities and create social unrest.

Stage III: Low Death Rate and Low Birth Rate

In this stage, both the death rate and birth rate are low. Thus, there is a stagnant size of population or even reduction in population. Moreover, the proportion of old population is high in the total population on account of high life expectancy.

According to population density in India,Why death rate is low?

Death rate is low on account of improvement in medical facilities, higher standards of education, and increase in food availability (on account of improvements in agriculture).

According to population density in India,Why birth rate is low?

Birth rate is low because people follow small family norms, are educated, and status of women is high.

Geographical prevalence of Stage Ill in population density in India

Stage III is prevalent in developed nations such as in Europe, North America, Japan, Russia, and few developing nations such as China.

These nations suffer from ageing of population. Aged population is unproductive in economic terms and consequently adds to expenditure of the economy. Some of the developed nations such as Norway, Finland, Denmark, and Sweden are even facing reduction in population density.

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