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Parliament Part 1- Organization And Composition Of Two Houses

Introduction | Parliament Part 1- Organization And Composition Of Two Houses

  • The Parliament is the legislative organ of the Union government. It occupies a pre-eminent and central position in the Indian democratic political system due to adoption of the parliamentary form of government, also known as ‘Westminster’ model of government.
  • Articles 79 to 122 in Part V of the Constitution deal with the organisation, composition, duration, officers, procedures, privileges, powers and so on of the Parliament.

Organisation of Parliament

  • Under the Constitution, the Parliament of India consists of three parts viz, the President, the Council of States and the House of the People.
  • In 1954, the Hindi names ‘Rajya Sabha’ and ‘Lok Sabha’ were adopted by the Council of States and the House of People respectively.
  • The Rajya Sabha is the Upper House (Second Chamber or House of Elders) and the Lok Sabha is the Lower House (First Chamber or Popular House). The former represents the states and union territories of the Indian Union, while the latter represents the people of India as a whole.
  • Though the President of India is not a member of either House of Parliament and does not sit in the Parliament to attend its meetings, he is an integral part of the Parliament. This is because a bill passed by both the Houses of Parliament cannot become law without the President’s assent. He also performs certain functions relating to the proceedings of the Parliament, for example, he summons and pro-rogues both the Houses, dissolves the Lok Sabha, addresses both the Houses, issues ordinances when they are not in session, and so on.

Composition Of The Council Of States (Rajya Sabha) | Parliament Part 1- Organization And Composition Of Two Houses

  • The Council of States shall consists of –
    • twelve members to be nominated by the President in accordance with the provisions of clause (3); and
    • not more than two hundred and thirty-eight representatives of the States and of the Union territories.
  • The allocation of seats in the Council of States to be filled by representatives of the States and of the Union territories shall be in accordance with the provisions in that behalf contained in the Fourth Schedule.
  • The members to be nominated by the President under sub-clause (a) and clause (1) shall consists of persons having special knowledge or practical experience in respect of such matters as the following, namely: – Literature, science, art and social service.
  • The representatives of each State in the Council of States shall be elected members of the Legislative Assembly of the State in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote.
  • The representatives of the Union territories in the Council of States shall be chosen in such manner as Parliament may by law prescribe.

Composition Of The House Of The People (Lok Sabha) | Parliament Part 1- Organization And Composition Of Two Houses

  • Subject to the provisions of article 331, the House of the People shall consists of –
    • not more than five hundred and thirty members chosen by direct election from territorial constituencies in the States, and
    • not more than twenty members to represent the Union territories, chosen in such manner as Parliament may by law provide.
  • For the purposes of sub-clause (a) of clause (1), –
    • there shall be allotted to each State a number of seats in the House of the People in such manner that the ration between that number and the population of the State is, so far as practicable, the same for all States; and
    • each State shall be divided into territorial constituencies in such manner that the ratio between the population of each constituency and the number of seats allotted to it is, so far as practicable, the same throughout the State:
      • Provided that the provisions of sub-clause (a) of this clause shall not be applicable for the purpose of allotment of seats in the House of the People to any State so long as the population of that State does not exceed six millions.
    • In this article, the expression “population” means the population as ascertained at the last preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published:
      • Provided that the reference in this clause to the last preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published shall, until the relevant figures for the first census taken after the year 2000 have been published, be construed as a reference to the 1971 census.

 

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