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Assam Rifles:

Known as ‘Friends of the Hill People’, Assam Rifles, raised initially as ‘Cachar Levy’ in 1835, is the oldest Police Force in the country with headquarters at Shillong.

The Force has dual role of maintaining internal security in the States in the North Eastern Region and guarding the Indo-Myanmar Border.

The Force works under the operational control of the Army. Mandate:

  • Conduct counter insurgency operations in the north-east and other areas where deemed necessary, under control of the army.
  • During peace and ‘proxy war’, ensure security of the Indo-China and Indo-­Myanmar borders. During war, rear area security in the TBA.
  • Act as penultimate interventionist force of the central government in internal security situation, under the control of army; when the situation goes beyond the control of central paramilitary operations.                                                                              PARAMILITARY FORCES OF INDIA

Special Frontier Force (SFF):

  • The Special Frontier Force (SFF) was created on 14 November 1962, near the end of the Indo-China War. The Cabinet Secretariat had ordered the raising of an elite guerrilla force composed mainly of Tibetan refugees.
  • It’s main goal was to conduct covert operations behind Chinese lines in the event of another Indo-China war. The first Inspector General of the SFF was a retired Indian Army Major General who was known for his unconventional thinking.
  • Soon the SFF came to be known as ‘Establishment 22’ due to its first Inspector General, who used to be commander of 22 Mountain Regiment during World War II.
  • Based in Chakrata, Uttarakhand, the force was put under the direct supervision of the Intelligence Bureau, and later, the Research and Analysis Wing, India’s external intelligence agency.
  • With warming of Indo-Chinese relations, SFF has moved out of covert operations to various other fields like counter-terrorism, Intelligence Gathering, Combat Air-Control, Close Protection, Training Foreign Military etc.                                                              PARAMILITARY FORCES OF INDIA

Indian Coast Guards:

  • The Coast Guard is the principal agency for enforcement of provisions of all national enactment in force in the maritime zones of India. Its motto is “To protect our ocean and offshore wealth including oil, fish and minerals; To assist mariners in distress and safeguard life and property at sea; To enforce maritime laws with respect to sea, shipping, poaching, smuggling and narcotics; To preserve marine environment and ecology and protect rare species; To collect scientific data and back-up the navy during war”.
  • ICG was established on 18 August 1978 under the Coast Guard Act, 1978. It operates under the Ministry of Defence.

Mandate and activities:

  • Ensuring safety and protection of the artificial islands, offshore installations and other structure in our maritime zones.
  • Providing protection to fishermen and assistance to them at sea while in distress.
  • Preservation and protection of our maritime environment including prevention and control of maritime pollution.
  • Assistance to the Department of Custom and other authorities in anti-smuggling operations.
  • Enforcement of MZI Acts.

Initiating measures for the safety of life and property at sea.


Internal security

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