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During 1960s the American society was in dismay and the citizens were full of grievances. In such a scenario the scholars got together to reduce the administrative deficit in theory and practice.NPA presents an alternative normative model for governance. It was an outcome of the critic of traditional administration. It was advocated by young scholars of America.


The mid 1960s were a times of turbulence in USA. There were urban rites, increase in crime rate and defeat in Vietnam.In such a scenario young scholars under patronage of Dwight waldo met in minnowbrook, 1968 and put forward views for NPA.

Books related to evolution of NPA

  1. Toward NPA: Minnowbrook perspective (1971)-Frank Marini
  2. Public Administration in time of turbulence

Characteristics of NPA


  1. 1.       Antipositive it rejects value-free administration, rejects deterministic view of administration and also rejects politics and administration dichotomy.
  2. 2.       Antitechnical –it attacks mechanical aspects related to bureaucracy
  3. 3.       Antibureacratic and anti hierarchal-it attacked neutrality and power of bureaucracy and wanted bureaucracy to be proactive responsive and accountable.


  1. It believed in immense potential of people and emphasized on people-centered administration.
  2. It wanted the administration to be more relevant, proactive and committed to the values and ethics
  3. Social equity should be stressed it said that government should actively engage in removing social discrimination and economic deprivation
  4. Relational approach it wanted that administration should be citizen centered and their should be constructive linkages within community
  5. NPA wanted the emphasis on innovation and change.

Goals Of NPA As Per Golembiewski

  1.   Relevance-NPA questioned the relevancy of management oriented public administration and wanted administration to respond to the grievances of the people.
  2. Values-NPA said that administration cannot be value neutral and rational it said that ends are as important as means and highlighted the importance of ethics in administration
  3. Social equity-Government has to be proactive in siding with disadvantage the sections
  4. Change oriented-NPA rejects status quo and works actively for social change to bring about social equity

Contribution Of NPA

  1. Represented voice of decent which is important for democracy
  2. Drew attention to core concern of government i.e. human welfare
  3. Provided a new vision –an alternative model


  1. No blueprint for action
  2. More theoretical and no practical plan of action
  3. Considered as revolution by rhetoric
  4. Considered as angry outpourings  of youth
  5. Fear that in pursuit of social equity administration might defy legislature and majority public opinion.
  6. If administrators become proactive, they might disregard the policy laid down by elected executive.

Golembiewski said that NPA is revolution and radicalism in words and status-quo in skills and technologies

Nigro said that NPA generated constructive debate on positive and moral role of public administration


NPA was the resultant of the angry outpourings of the scholars who met in minnowbrook conference in 1968.Most of these scholars were against the traditional setup of public administration and wanted to revive and redeem the status of public administration



1968 context changed- more on privatization & voluntarism. This conference was more pragmatic then minnowbrook-I.M-II put forward certain issues which were in continuation with minnowbrook-I but it also put forward certain new issues

Similarity to M-I

  1. Concerns for social equity
  2. Democratic value and centrality of public administration was stressed
  3. Continued  debate between normative and behavioral prospective
  4. acceptance of heterogenous nature of work force
  5. changing outlook of government and now focus was on privatization

Distinctive Features

  1. 1.       No longterm vision as it recognized complexity of administration
  2. 2.       While recognising  role of other disciplines not to lose identity of discipline
  3. 3.       Wanted a mix of private sector and public sector
  4. 4.       Innovative personnel practices
  5. 5.       Emphasis on technology


  1. Critically differentiate between minnowbrook conference –I and II?
  2. Critically analyse NPA in the context of challenges thrown by market forces

Public Administration by G.Rajput

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