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Muhammad Shah

  • Muhammad Shah’s long reign of nearly 30 years (1719-1748) was the last chance of saving the Empire.
  • But Muhammad Shah was not the man of the moment.
  • He was weak-minded and frivolous and over-fond of a life of ease and luxury.
  • Muhammad Shah neglected the affairs of state.
  • Instead of giving full support to knowledgeable wazirs such as Nizam-ul-Mulk, he fell under the evil influence of corrupt and worthless flatterers and intrigued against his own ministers.

  • Ho even shared in the bribes taken by his favorite courtiers.
  • Disgusted with the fickle-mindedness and suspicious nature of the Emperor and the constant quarrels at the court, Nizum-ul-Mulk, the most powerful noble of the time, decided to follow his own ambition.
  • He had become the wazir in 1722 and had made a vigorous attempt to reform the administration.
  • Nizum-ul-Mulk decided to leave the Emperor and his Empire to their fate and to strike out on his own.
  • He relinquished his office in October 1724 and marched south to find the state of Hyderabad in the Deccan.
  • “His departure was symbolic of the flight of loyalty and virtue from the Empire.”
  • After the withdrawal of Nizum-ul-Mulk, many other zamindars, rajas, and nawabs of many states raised the banner of rebellion and independence.
  • For example Bengal, Hyderabad, Avadh, Punjab, and Maratha.


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